Nutritherapies – Dr. Klenner part2

## Dr. KLENNER clinical studyvitamin C:

Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C

The Clinical Experiences of Frederick R. Klenner, M.D.,

abbreviated, sumarized and annotated by Lendon H. Smith, M.D.
2233 SW Market Street, Portland, Oregon 97201

# Preface

After Frederick Klenner died in 1984, his friend (and mine), ArthurRybeck, a nutritionally-oriented dentist practicing in Wheeling, WestVirginia, asked if I would be interested in going over the 27 papersKlenner had written from the early 1940’s to the early 1970’s. The wholeidea would be to let the world know how thoughtful and careful aresearcher he was, and to encourage others to continue his work. If acompendium of Vitamin C (and other nutritional) therapy could be compiledfrom the published work of Dr. Klenner, maybe we could get moretraditional medicine-oriented doctors to use his methods for the relief ofsickness and suffering.

Standard doctors tend to believe studies and reports if published, buttend to disbelieve hearsay stories about treatments that patients haveread in a “health” newsletter.

I have used Dr. Klenner’s methods on hundreds of patients. He is right. Ithelps almost every condition and situation, and my failures were due toinadequate amounts.

The timing of such a paper might be most appropriate. Doctors aresuffering from low public esteem because they are perceived to bemoney-grubbing and mistake-laden. This would be a scientificallydocumented – from the medical literature – therapy for a variety ofconditions: cardiovascular, allergies, infections, malabsorption, (seeindex), and even AIDS, for which prescription drugs may be hazardous. Nowthe doctors can say, “We have a safe, reasonably natural way of treatingyour condition that is fairly cheap. We might just keep you out of thehospital.”

That last part might make the insurance carriers perk up their ears. Thepatients might dash back to the doctors’ offices because the word isgetting out that doctors are helping people without side effects. Noticealso, the dates on these articles and references – these things were knowndecades ago.

Take this booklet to your M.D. and suggest that he read about thesedocumented studies. Take Dr. E. Cheraskin’s “Vitamin C Connection” alongfor further documentation. If your doctor doesn’t know, how can he helpyou?

# Foreword

by Linus Pauling, Ph.D.

The early papers by Dr. Fred R. Klenner provide much information about theuse of large doses of Vitamin C in preventing and treating many diseases.These papers are still important. Dr. Lendon Smith has done a valuableservice in making the work of Dr. Klenner available to the public.

# Introduction

I have before me the published words of Frederick Robert Klenner, B.S.,M.S., M.D., F.C.C.P., F.A.A.F.P. He graduated from Duke University, Schoolof Medicine back in 1936. After three years of hospital training heentered the private practice of medicine in Reidsville, North Carolina.His main subspecialty was diseases of the chest, but he became interestedin the use of massive doses of Vitamin C in the treatment of virusdiseases and other illnesses as well. He inspired Linus Pauling and IrwinStone to expand the research on the great benefits of Vitamin C. Dr.Klenner died in 1984.

What follows is a review, and abbreviation, a summary and a critique ofthe 27 scientific papers he wrote. In the light of the recent developmentsand research in the use of Vitamin C, it is essential that the roots ofits usage be reviewed. Briefly, Vitamin C does attenuate most virusinfections by aiding the production of interferon, controls many cancers,relieves some depression, modifies much pain and changes the course ofmany diseases, like multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,spider bites, the bites of poisonous insects and reptiles. The watchwordis, “If in doubt, give Vitamin C.”

# Dedication

If Dr. Klenner had lived he would have wanted this book to be dedicated tothe following:

Anne Klenner for her patience and understanding.
Fritz for the lively discussions in chemistry.
Mary Anne and Gertrude for being ‘guinea pigs’.

# General Remarks

He believed in the healing power of nature, but believed that naturalremedies could enhance that power and were safer and usual1y moreeffective than drugs. Hippocrates said, “Of several remedies the physicianshould choose the least sensational”. Vitamin C fills that criterion.

In 1948, he published his first paper on the use of large doses of VitaminC in the treatment of virus diseases. In 1960, he realized, “Every headcold must be considered as a probable source of brain pathology.” Hold onto this thought; it is significant for the understanding of diseases likemultiple sclerosis. He also felt-as do Archie Kalikarinos and Glen Dettmanof Australia-that the dreaded Sudden Infant Death Syndrome was basically aVitamin C deficiency. His maxim: the patient should “get large doses ofVitamin C in all pathological conditions while the physician ponders thediagnosis.”

We have misled ourselves with the mistaken notion that all C was supposedto do was keep us from scurvy. If, however, we base our needs on theamounts other mammals manufacture with their intact enzyme it comes to 2-4grams daily in the unstressed condition. Under stress 70 kg of rats make15 grams of C. [Burns; Salomon; Conney]

We are willing to accept the premise that some of us are born with geneticdefects that lead to problems that can be somewhat controlled with dietand supplements (i.e. phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and alkaptonuria andpernicious anemia). Can’t we accept the fact that we all have a geneticdeficiency of the enzyme, l-gulonolactone oxidase and have to take VitaminC for health, even for life? [Burns, 1959]

Irwin Stone calls this human genetic lack, this inability, hypoascorbemia.The point that Dr. Klenner is making: “The physiological requirements inman are no different from other mammals capable of carrying out thissyntheses.” If one is anemic due to poor iron intake, is it cheating toswallow iron tablets for a while? If you are hypoascorbemic because youcannot manufacture Vitamin C from sugar, extra glucose in your diet willnot help, you need to take Vitamin C.

He reports that one of the Pilgrim Fathers wrote to a friend in England in1621: “Bring juice of lemon, and take it fasting. It is of good use.”

Folklore has revealed to us what natural remedies have been helpful andeven curative. We have been lured into the trap of modern medicine whichprescribed a drug for every condition. But consider acerola: Puerto Ricanlegend has it that if the tree bearing this fruit is in one’s backyard,colds will not enter the front door. This fruit bears 30 times the amountof C than oranges. Dr. Klenner credits Boneset with the health of theKlenner family during the great influenza pandemic of 1918. This plant wasmade into a tea, bitter but curative. He assayed the tea for Vitamin C;they were getting 10-30 grams at a time!

The small amount of Vitamin C, recommended by the RDA (75 mg then and 60mg now) is enough to protect the person from gross disease, but not theamount to maintain good health. Dr. Klenner quotes Kline and Eheart, whoin 1944 realized there are wide variations in the need for Vitamin C, inotherwise “normal” individuals. In 1945 Jolliffe suggested that theoptimum requirements might be more than 10 times the small dosesrecommended.

Scurvy develops slowly. Crandon (in 1940) found that the Vitamin C levelof the blood plasma fell to zero for 90 days before there was obviousclinical evidence and that this was as long as 132 days before the firstsigns appeared.

# How it Works

How does it work: as an oxidizing agent massive amounts, i.e., 5-150grams, intravenously, for certain pathological conditions, if allowed torun in rapidly (20 gauge needle), acts as a “Flash Oxidizer” and maycorrect the condition in minutes. It can be a reducing agent. Itneutralized toxins, viruses and histamine. The more serious the condition,the more C is required.

It appears that Vitamin C acts as a reducing agent, an oxidizing agent, ananti-clotting agent, an antihistamine, and as an anti-infective agent.

He summarized the function of C in poliomyelitis:

1. Virus destruction.
2. Dehydrates the brain and the spinal cord safely.
3. Supports and normalized the stressed adrenal glands.
4. It preserves the lining of the central canal and maintains more regularspacing and less crowding of ependymal cells (surface cells of the spinalcord).

Ascorbic acid enters all cells. It “proceeds to take up the protein coatsbeing manufactured by the virus nucleic acid, thus preventing the assemblyof new virus units.” Cells expand, rupture and die, but there is no virusparticles available to enter and infect new cells. If a virus has invadeda cell, the Vitamin C contributes to its breakdown to adenosine deaminase,which converts adenosine to inosine. Purines are formed which arecatabolized (broken down) and cannot be used to make more virus nucleicacid.

Viral nucleic acid has a protein coat which protects this parasite as itrides the blood or lymph highway to gain specific cell entry. [Larson] itis possible that if the ascorbic acid can remove that protective proteincoat in the blood stream or in the cells, the white cell phagocytes andimmune globulin could then neutralize these vulnerable virus particles.

I like this from Dr. Klenner: “Ascorbic acid also joins with the availablevirus protein, making a new macromolecule which acts as the repressorfactor.” (interferon?) Multiplication of new virus bodies is inhibited.

He summarizes the study of Lojkin, (1937), who discovered the inactivationof one virus was due to a specific intermediate product formed in thecourse of the oxidation of C but needed the stimulation of copper ions. Itis a peroxide and is decomposed as rapidly as it is formed. This studyindicates why Vitamin C works better in the body and not the test tube.Every function of the body requires enzymes, some vitamins and someminerals to act as coenzymes. If enough Vitamin C is supplied, the enzymesystem that breaks down invading viruses and bacteria, will be able to doits job properly. Quote: “Unless the white blood cells are saturated withascorbic acid, they are like soldiers without bullets.”

Vitamin C in vitro at body temperature inactivates certain toxins at anunbelievable rate. Back in 1938 some researchers [Klegler] placed VitaminC in test tubes with toxins. After incubation for 48 hours the toxins werenot lethal to mice when injected. The more toxin in the tube, the fasterthe C disappears. “The rate of disappearance of the C in toxin andordinary broth was more striking the greater the concentration of VitaminC.” Dr. Klenner concluded: “The degree of neutralization in a virusinfection will be in proportion to the concentration of the vitamin andthe length of time which it is employed.”

This has been Dr. Klenner’s main complaint: failure to benefit fromVitamin C use is usually due to inadequate amounts being used for tooshort a period of time.

Vitamin C combines directly with the toxin/virus. This new compound isoxidized by Vitamin C; the toxin/virus and the Vitamin C are destroyed.This must be why C has to be continued after the apparent cure.

It acts as a respiratory catalyst, aiding cellular respiration by actingas a hydrogen transport. The liver has a better chance of detoxifying theblood stream of poisons, toxins, viruses and bacteria if the plasma issaturated with Vitamin C. Fever, toxins and bacteria reduce the level ofC. Therefore, Dr. Klenner theorizes, if a high level of C is maintained,all tissues return to normal despite the fever and the bacteria; andbecause of its action “as a respiratory catalyst, it enables the body tobuild up adequate resistance to the invader.”

The anaerobic condition in the tissue is relieved. Acidity is decreasedand large amounts of Adrenaline disappear. The constriction of the bloodvessels ceases and the liver and pancreas can receive the proper nutrientsto function. Properly calculated doses of C on a continuing basis willrestore the normal physiology of the body.

The adrenals and Vitamin C are interrelated. During an infection Vitamin Cis absent from the urine and is decreased or absent in blood, even whenmoderate amounts are being given intravenously. Vitamin C in the adrenalglands was greatly reduced in animals succumbing to polio. (Dr. Klennercites the literature of 1934-35 to document this.) Hans Selye knew how theadrenals would show damage with stress. He found that all patients illwith a virus would show petechial hemorrhages (small leaks of blood intothe skin) when a tourniquet was applied to increase venous backpressure.Capillary weakness is a sign of low levels of Vitamin C. Sugar in theurine, associated with the petechif, disappeared when adequate serumlevels of Vitamin C were obtained.

It is known the C regulates the intercellular substance of the capillarywall. The collagen of all fibrous tissue structures is dependent on anadequate level of Vitamin C. Increased capillary fragility is observed inindividuals when the blood level of C drops to 1 mg per liter. These weakcapillary walls may allow a simple virus to invade the brain (see“Insidious Virus”).

In addition, Vitamin C acts as catalyst in the assimilation of iron.

(Ascorbic acid is a necessary coenzyme in the metabolic oxidation oftyrosine. The latter is necessary to break down protein to a usable aminoacid.)

Dr. Klenner states, “The importance of Vitamin C as an antibiotic and asthe precursor of antibody formation lack scientific appreciation becauseof its simplicity.” The reluctance of the medical profession to employ itin massive doses like antibiotics has allowed the appearance of allergiesas a major problem.

Vitamin C is known to be essential for life. He quotes the studies thatshow that when Vitamin C is given intravenously to patients with adeficiency, fibroblasts begin to form connective tissue and capillary budsinvade blood clots within just a few hours. In a similar time frame whenused as an antibiotic, fever falls and the white count climbs.

Dr. Klenner points out that the standard treatment of colds was based onthe alkalinizing effect of forcing juices down the patient’s throat.Highly alkaline urine has less Vitamin C. The Vitamin C would be thusretained in the tissues helping to guard against the viruses and bacteria.When Vitamin C levels drop, glycogen in the liver is converted to glucose:a response to stress.

Dr. Klenner is convinced that C will work in any problem but the negativeresults reported are only because an insufficient amount was used. Atragic error in judgment has been made by the National Academy of Scienceand the National Research Council: the minimum daily requirement for C.All of us need more; some need a lot more.

Factors that determine need:

1. age
2. habits, alcohol, drugs, tobacco
3. sleep, especially if drugged
4. trauma of infection, of physical injury, of work, of emotions, ofsurgery
5. Kidney threshold
6. environment
7. physiological stress
8. climate changes
9. loss of C in stools
10. absorption
11. binders in tablets
12. individual difference in body chemistry
13. drugs, pesticides, carbon monoxide exposure
14. weight
15. poor storage.

Klenner quotes the Food and Life Year Book, 1939, published by the U.S.Department of Agriculture (surely as conservative and orthodox a group asone could ever find): “Even when there is not a single outward symptom oftrouble, a person may be in a state of Vitamin C deficiency more dangerousthan scurvy itself. When such a condition is not detected, and continuesuncorrected, the teeth and bones will be damaged, and what may be evenmore serious, the blood stream is weakened to the point where it can nolonger resist or fight infections not so easily cured as scurvy. Fivegrains of aspirin will not relieve kidney colic; don’t expect control of avirus with 100 to 400 mg of C.”

# Dosage

The amount of C depends upon the severity of the disease but also upon theefficiency of the victim’s immune system. The usual dose of 65 mg perkilogram of body weight may be expected to take care of the usual virusinfection when given every 2-4 hours by needle. The more severe conditionwould respond to larger single injections.

However “if the activity of the pathogen is completely stopped, thedevelopment of active immunity will be interrupted.” Therefore,modification of childhood diseases is the aim of Vitamin C treatment, notthe complete overnight suppression that would prevent the body from makingimmune memory. To accomplish modification, 250 mg per kilogram should begiven intramuscularly. If necessary, half of this amount would be given ineight hours. Procaine 1.5-2% can be given with a separate syringe with thesame needle just prior to the C.

The itch, the irritability, the pain, the vomiting of chicken pox measlesand mumps was assuaged in one hour with this last dose. Crusting ofchicken pox was present in 5 hours instead of 7-9 days. 250 mg perkilogram eliminated the disease in contrast to the 65 mg which justsuppressed it. 350 mg per kilogram may be employed along with antibioticsin treating stubborn bacterial infections. Because a virus infection willdeplete the Vitamin C reserve, bleeding from the nose or chest wouldindicate an emergency situation; Vitamin C, using the above noted dosageschedule, should be pumped in immediately.

He cites experimental work by others indicating that in monkeys smallerdoses of C could stop the disease from appearing during the incubationperiod compared to the relatively large doses needed to suppress thedisease once the disease was diagnosed. It all suggests that most of uswill not get any serious virus disease if we would all take sufficientVitamin C daily. We need, however, to get a little sick so we will developsome immunity, but if we get very sick a lot there is something missing,usually Vitamin C. He is suggesting that the more serious the disease, themore Vitamin C should be used to treat it. (We titrate the sickness, asDr. Cathcart says: “Well, you’ve got a 200 gram flu or a 50 gram cold.)

In Dr. Klenner’s review of his over 3000 cases about 15% required moreVitamin C than the average. This ties in with the idea that we are alldifferent. It also explains why some dogs, who make their own Vitamin Cwould die of distemper. “I have cured many dogs suffering with distemperby giving several grams of ascorbic acid, by needle, every two hours.” 15%of 300 obstetrical cases required 15 grams of C daily to remain withinnormal limits. The other 85% needed only 10 grams per day. He felt somespillage into the urine indicated the body was saturated. “White bloodcells are useless unless they are full of ascorbic acid.”

Dr. Klenner argues that the recommended daily allowances are only toprevent scurvy. “Acute scurvy and chronic hypovitaminosis aremetabolically different conditions.” We all are much more vulnerable tostress, infections, and pollution.

A shortage is produced from a poor diet but also poor hygiene,overcrowding, dampness, cold and physical work (or play). There is anarrow margin between health and pathological changes.

For a very severe illness, the dose he used was large and the mosteffective route was intravenous, but the intramuscular route wassatisfactory. He gave at least 350 mg per kilogram of body weight. (A 70kg man is 150 pounds; thus 70 x 350= 24,500 mg. He would use a 25 gramdose for a 25 gram illness.) This amount was put in 500 cc of sterilewater, usually with dextrose, saline or Ringer’s solution. It was dilutedso that there was at least 18 cc of diluent to each gram of C. In smallchildren, 2 or 3 grams can be given intramuscularly once every two hours.An ice cap to the buttocks will prevent soreness and induration. As muchas 12 grams can be given in this manner into 2 or 3 different muscle siteswith a 50 cc syringe; larger amounts must be diluted with dextrose orsaline and run in by I.V. drip. If big concentrated doses are given bypush (25 grams in a 100 cc syringe), the brain may become dehydratedcausing convulsive movements of the legs. Intramuscular injections arealways 500 mg to 1 cc solution. At least one gram of calcium gluconatemust be added to the fluids each day. Massive doses of C pull calcium ionsfrom platelets; and the clotting mechanism is weakened. Nosebleeds mayoccur. One gram of calcium gluconate is added to control acidity and toreplace the calcium ion loss

Sodium ascorbate is less painful. Some of us will put procaine, 2%, withthe Vitamin C when injected into the muscle. Vitamin C can also be takenorally once the patient is recovering.

This dose is repeated every hour for 6 to 12 times and then every 2-4hours until recovery.

If using under 400 mg per kg body weight, it can be given with the sodiumsalt. Doses over 400 mg per kg of body weight must be diluted to at leastone gram to 18 cc of solution.

He suggests the following for each bottle: 60 grams of C, 500 mg thiaminHCl, 300 mg pyridoxine, 400 mg calcium pantothenate, 100 mg riboflavin,300 mg niacinamide. It is to be given once or twice daily.

He used a 23 gauge needle intravenously and a 22 gauge needle forintramuscular use-one inch long for children and one and a half inch foradults.

The idea of these big doses is to saturate the tissues; the white bloodcells will be able to destroy pathogens. “I have seen diphtheria,hemolytic streptococcus infections clear within hours following aninjection of ascorbic acid in a dose ranging from 500-700 mg per kilogramof body weight given intravenously as fast as the patient’s cardiovascularsystem will allow.”

He got to know the vulnerability of viruses so well, he played games withthem. “When proper amounts are used it will destroy all virus organisms.”He could give one gram of ascorbic acid every four hours and modify thedisease symptoms, but if he gave one gram every two hours by mouth forfour days, he had stopped the disease, apparently by killing the virus. Ifhe gave this dose for only two days, the symptoms returned. (He keptmeasles simmering in his own children for a month by giving this dose fortwo days, then off for two then on, etc.)

With 350 mg per kilogram of body weight every two hours, he could stopmeasles and dry up chicken pox. If he could get in the vein, 400 mg perkilogram two to three times in 24 hours was all that was required (hepublished this way back in 1951, in the Southern Medical SurgicalJournal).

He used protamide and it seemed to shorten the course of the course of thedisease (it is a colloidal solution of denatured proteolytic enzyme). Itwas especially valuable in herpes simplex and herpes zoster. Dr. Klennerfelt that Vitamin C is related to this enzyme, as it possesses the sameanti-neuritic properties. If used together, the results are more dramaticthan either one used alone (the C was used as usual and the protamide waslimited to one ampoule per day). Influenza and poliomyelitis alsoresponded rapidly to this dual approach. He found calcium made a bigdifference as it duplicated the results of the C. He used 10 cc of calciumgluconate (one gram of calcium) along with the C daily. It can also beinjected deep into the gluteus muscle.

# Tests for C

He noted a monitoring method: “In all virus infections the Benedict urinereaction for sugar will run from two to four plus. After Vitamin C, thisreaction will clear in 18 to 36 hours.” We all know that Vitamin C isrelated to glucose and Vitamin C in the urine will show a reducingreaction, just as glucose does. If a healthy individual is given one ortwo grams of C by injection, the urine will show a positive Benedict sugarreaction for hours.” This paradox, Dr. Klenner explains, indicates thatVitamin C and the virus bodies do form a new compound, and not a reducingchemical, otherwise with all this Vitamin C injected, there would be anincrease in the response to the Benedict test.

When the urine starts to show a positive test to Benedict’s test, it is asign that the virus is under control and the person is close to normalagain. The Benedict’s urine test is a guide to treatment with C.

More than 30 years ago, Dr. Klenner developed the silver nitrate urinetest. When treating severe pathological conditions, the test done everyfour hours will reveal the level of Vitamin C saturation. If the urinetest is positive for Vitamin C, it means the tissues are saturated and thepatient is on the right dose. It is not a waste; some spillage indicatessaturation.

# Insidious Virus

In June, 1957, he wrote in the Tri-State Medical Journal, on the‘Insidious’ virus. He recalled a 19 month-old baby, who had a minor coldfor two weeks. Then suddenly, instead of getting well, he developed a highfever and seizures of his right arm and leg. He was stiff, undernourished,cold to the touch and semi-comatose. Two grams of C were injected onadmission to the hospital and another gram within the hour. Then it wasone gram orally every four hours. Mustard plasters and croup tent wereprovided. A cup of orange juice was drunk from a bottle two hours afterthe first shot. The baby began to respond to pain. Temperature was stillhigh, 103.80. The arm and leg were completely paralyzed, but in eighthours, he began moving the right leg and could hold the juice bottle withboth hands. Penicillin “was given on the second and third days todiscourage secondary invaders”. He was home on the 5th day.

Dr. Klenner recalls six additional similar cases, all under four years ofage. Four of the children were seen by a physician who noted no fever andwas “not impressed with the illness of the child.” All of these childrendied within 30 minutes to two hours after that physician’s examination. Notreatment was begun because there was no diagnosis. A virus infection wasfound at the autopsy. “An insidious virus involvement of the brain.”

He takes us through the examination and treatment of a near miss. Aneighteen month-old girl had a cold for a week; then choked on supper. Hertemperature was normal, but she was very restless and whining. On a hunch,Dr. Klenner sent her to the hospital. She was comatose on arrival,responding only to pain. Temperature still normal, but pulse was 152 andrespirations 32 per minute. He felt she had the “Insidious Virus” andstarted Vitamin C. Two and one half grams initially intramuscularly; in 30minutes she got another two grams. Then every two hours for five doses andthen every four hours. After 36 hours, it was injected every six hours.(30 grams altogether). Croup tent and penicillin were used.

Shortly after admission, some water by mouth was tried and she immediatelychoked, and the water came out of her nose-like bulbar polio. The normaltemperature at admission slowly rose to 102.40. Six hours after admission,she was able to swallow. By the 11th hour the temperature was normal andshe was alert and swallowing. In 24 hours from the first dose of C she wasdrinking freely from a bottle. She went home on the fifth day.

Dr. Klenner feels if she had been put to bed after supper that night, shewould have died in her sleep, like a case of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.He calls it brain pathology caused by an insidious virus.

Dr. Klenner was reminded of the case of a 15-year old girl who had had alingering cold for several weeks. She complained of extreme fatigue at adance party, but other than that and her cold symptoms, she went to bedapparently well. The next morning she was found dead. The autopsy wasvirus pneumonia. Dr Klenner believed that the lung pathology was notenough to kill her, it was the insidious virus that invaded her brain. Hefeels that the motor nuclei have the shortest nerves, therefore the viruswould reach them first. It could lead to spasm of the diaphragm muscle andcessation of breathing.

He felt that ascorbic acid could not reverse the virus once the pathologyhad progressed to a certain unknown point. He feels this maxim shouldguide all treating doctors: large doses of Vitamin C should be given inall pathological states, “It should be given by all physicians while theyawait the diagnosis.”

These large doses should be reduced once the temperature approachesnormal; false temperature rise may result. If the C is taken from theampoules and swallowed in some juice, it will have about the same resultsas if it had been injected.

In another similar paper published the next year, 1958, in the Tri-StateMedical Journal, he outlines two important stages:

Stage (A): 1) a history of having had the flu for two or three dayscomplicated by physical or mental stress, or 2) a mild cold with a runnynose for several weeks. Then the sudden onset of Stage (B) with either 1)convulsions, 2) extreme excitability or dancing eyeballs, 3) severe chill,4) strangling during normal swallowing, 5) Collapse or stupor.

Stage (B) is usually associated with the following:
1. rapid pulse,
2. normal or moderately elevated temperature,
3. respirations twice the normal rate and sometimes an air hunger (whichis reminiscent of that seen in acidosis or aspirin poisoning),
4. dilated, unequal pupils,
5. normal urinalysis,
6. elevated white blood count (which elevation is usually associated witha bacterial infection),
7. normal bowel action,
8. loss of bladder control when convulsions or coma occurred.

He felt that the rapid spread of the virus to the brain tissue was similarto the speed of the onset of the symptoms after a severe head injury: “…a margin of safety is so narrow that life and death are separated only byminutes.” There is no time to wait for the laboratory results.

Case I: A 64-year old woman had a slight cold for a week, but no othersymptoms. She suddenly developed 1040 (axillary) and slipped into a coma(pulse 120). In the hospital she received achromycin and ascorbic acid.Dr. Klenner put 26 grams of C into 375 cc of 5% dextrose in water, and letit drip intravenously, 75 drops per minute. An oxygen mask was applied.The white blood count was 18,000.

She became conscious an hour after this was begun but could not swallowand was incontinent. The fever dropped to 1020, but by the ninth hour itwas again at 1040. Another I.V. was given (the same as above) with theantibiotic, and the 26 grams of C was begun-R=36 per minute.

In another hour (24 hours after admission) her temperature was 1000, pulse84, and respiration 28. By noon the next day (36 hours) she was suddenlyable to swallow again. She continued the achromycin daily and four gramsof Vitamin C orally every four hours.

Case II: A five-year old boy with no special symptoms suddenly developed aconvulsion and 1040 (rectally), pulse 130 and respiration 18. He wasextremely restless. His throat was red and white count 9,000. He hadanother convulsion in Dr. Klenner’s office. Dr. Klenner gave him fourgrams of C intravenously and sent him into the hospital where he got threegrams of C intramuscularly. His dose was then four grams of C in orangejuice every four hours, plus an antibiotic (chloromycetin, rarely usednow). Temperature was normal in 12 hours. He continued treatment at homefor three days.

Case III: A 16 month old boy who had had a mild cold for two weekssuddenly collapsed into unconsciousness. The pulse was over 200, andrespiration 40 per minute and temperature 1000 rectally. Oxygen wasstarted and two grams of C was given intramuscularly. He roused in tenminutes. Two grams of C was given every two hours for five times, thenevery four hours for twelve more doses. The examination and white bloodcount (10,000) indicated bilateral pneumonitis so achromycin was added (50mg every four hours). The temperature was normal by the third day. And hewas home in a week.

Case IV: A two-and-a-half-year old boy had a lingering cold for ten days.Temperature was 1010 with red swollen tonsils. Ears and chest clear, butthe pulse was 130 and respirations were rapid and labored. He was senthome to have some prescriptions filled but had a convulsion at thepharmacy and was brought back. Temperature then was 1030. He receivedthree grams of C intramuscularly plus oxygen. At the hospital he was givenanother two grams of C. It was repeated in one hour and then every twohours x 4. Penicillin was administered along with terramycin. Histemperature was normal in eight hours after admission and remained so; hewas taking and retaining fluids. He was home on the second hospital day.

Case V: Demonstrates the usual quick response to therapy, but also therecurrence rate if the C is discontinued prematurely. The patient, a 73year-old male, was admitted three times in 24 days with the same disease.He had a slight cold for a few days. Then abruptly, a severe headache wasfollowed by a chill and coma. T=103, p=138, resp.=36, BP=150/90, whiteblood count was 10,000. Moisture was detected in his lungs. Muscle jerksappeared. Nasal oxygen begun. Intravenous achromycin and Vitamin C werebegun; 20 grams of C was added to 378 cc of 5% dextrose in water. It wasrepeated in eight hours. He became conscious in 18 hours. He went home onthe third day but returned in two weeks with the same findings andreceived the same treatment and sent home. In seven days he was back withthe same symptoms. He was given 24 grams of C and sent home on achromycinand ten grams of C daily indefinitely.

As these cases show Dr. Klenner was confident that the C would handle thevirus, but he needed the antibiotics to control the bacterial secondaryinvaders.

The initial dose administered by needle is no less than 250 mg perkilogram of body weight. For children the dose would be two to three gramsintramuscularly using a concentration of 500 mg per cc. Ice on the muscleafter injection will usually control pain. “Massive use of C is compatiblewith any other drug and in most instances it will enhance the value ofthese other remedies.”

He felt that the virus (or their toxins) act on the brain and canculminate in diaphragmatic spasm with resultant dyspnea and even asphyxia.

He believed that the lingering “cold” had depleted the stores of VitaminC. The capillary beds in lungs and brain are damaged and the virus caninvade these tissues. The microscopic pathology in the brain showsthrombosis of vessels, hemorrhages and proliferation of leucocytes. Theseare signs of ascorbic acid deficiency. If the patients are not givenmassive doses of C at this critical time, they will experience permanentnerve injury or may succumb. Pregnant women are thus more susceptible topolio because of their relatively low stores of C. “With the use ofmassive doses of Vitamin C, I have yet to see a patient not fullyrecovered.” It will also shorten the illness by at least one-half theusual sickness days, and the patients can be easily handled at home.Indeed, he treated many of these patients with two and three visits a dayin the office for the Vitamin C shots. He did not exclude the use ofantibiotics.

In 1960 he reemphasized the need for families and physicians to bevigilant for the potentially fatal viral encephalitis. As published in TheTri-State Medical Journal, February, 1960, he warned that “every cold mustbe considered as a probable source of brain pathology.” Most doctors arenot impressed with the seriousness of the runny nose, the sore windpipeand the dry cough until this smoldering virus bursts through the defensesand attacks the brain.

The point he is emphasizing is that the smoldering virus is depleting thecirculating Vitamin C, and when it gets low enough, the intercellularcement is weakened; the virus can easily burst through to the susceptiblebrain. It is like a metastasis of the pulmonary pathology to the brain(just like cancer cells seeding into the brain).

The brain is the logical target of any virus floating about in the blood,as the vascular system supplying the brain is the most extensive of allthe capillary beds in the body. Interference with the blood supply of thenervous system can be disastrous, since the brain cannot accumulate anoxygen debt.

Biochemical techniques will some day indicate what is happening at thecellular level. The proof lies in the results. Dr. Klenner recites someclassics way back in 1953. A patient with virus pneumonia and a fever of1060 received 140 grams of C over a period of 72 hours. On the third dayshe was alert, sitting in bed and swallowing fluids by mouth. Dr. Klennerbelieved that a similar respiratory virus in a baby with a truncatedimmune system might spread all over the body in minutes winding up in thebrain as encephalitis, pneumonia and diaphragmatic spasm. (The SuddenInfant Death Syndrome (S.I.D.S.) that takes 8,000 babies in the U.S.between ages two and ten months of age.)

It is not just the lung pathology that takes these people; it is the braininvasion. (It sounds a little like Reye’s syndrome-an innocent flu turnsinto a fatal encephalitis.) “It is necessary for everyone to take adequatesupplemental Vitamin C to guard against such disasters.”

He had searched the literature and found studies reported in 1905 and 1907that confirmed the virus lung-to-brain encephalitis pattern. All of Dr.Klenner’s patients recovered. How do we get doctors to inject massivedoses of C into their collapsed patients while they are “pondering thediagnosis?”

He felt there were many pathways into the brain: nose, stomach, ears butthe basic fault might be the breakdown of the intercellular cement of thecapillary wall in regulating the permeability of the blood vessels of theC.N.S. Vitamin C is essential to the integrity of those capillary walls.It makes sense to believe that the chronicity of the virus infection-mildthough it may have been-could have finally depleted the body of an optimumsupply of C for maintenance of tissue repair. Capillaries break down,blood and viruses are free to attack the brain. The theory and practiceseem to fit. Vitamin C helps control virus infections, and if there is afailure, usually it is because not enough C was being used.

In another case, a seven year-old boy was treated for influenza off and onfor six weeks. He got sulfa, a form of penicillin and five to ten grams ofC orally. When he had the fourth recurrence, the antibiotics and C had noeffect. On the third day he suddenly became lethargic and then droppedinto a stupor. Temperature was 102.60. Dr. Klenner quickly injected himwith six grams of ascorbic acid intravenously. In five minutes he wasawake, asking, “what happened?” Another six grams in four hours and twomore at six hour intervals. Recovery complete in 24 hours without a traceof recurrence. The patient was administered five grams of C in juice everyeight hours for a week. The patient was Dr. Klenner’s son.

Viral encephalitis can be associated with cold sores; one third ofpatients die and 85% of survivors have brain damage. All of us areinfected by the age of five years but only 1% experience symptoms. Thevirus is harbored in a dormant form until a physical or emotional hurtprovokes the virus to reproduce and manifest itself with the canker sore.

# Virus Pneumonia

He wrote an article about virus pneumonia (Southern Medicine and Surgery,Feb. 1948), a persistent debilitating illness that responds poorly toantibiotics. In his series of 42 cases he achieved excellent results with,surprisingly, Vitamin C. Some doctors were using X-rays as therapy!

His routine: 1000 mg of Vitamin C intravenously every six to twelve hoursfor a mild case. In children, 500 mg of C intramuscularly every six totwelve hours was about right. Three to seven injections were all that wasrequired for complete clinical and X-ray resolution. Most patients feltbetter in just one hour and definite improvement after two hours. Nauseaand headache disappeared after the first shot. Fever fell at least twodegrees Fahrenheit in several hours after the first injection.

He gave alkaline drinks as this impedes the excretion of the C through thekidneys. Mustard plasters were used to relieve chest pain and constrictedbreathing. In some patients cyanosis (blueness due to lack of oxygen intissues) was immediately relieved by an additional injection of 500 mg ofC.

He then reports the case of virus pneumonia which he treated in the early1940’s. The man became blue but refused to be hospitalized; Dr. Klennerwanted to test the catalytic action of Vitamin C to serve as a gastransport (O2) aiding cellular respiration. He gave him two grams ofVitamin C intramuscularly and the cyanosis began to clear up in 30minutes. Six hours later that patient was sitting up eating dinner; hisfever had fallen three degrees. Dr. Klenner suspected that the C had donemore than act as a respiratory catalyst. He was given a gram every sixhours for three days. He was well by this time. Here is “evidence to proveunequivocally that Vitamin C is the antibiotic of choice in the handlingof all types of virus diseases. Furthermore, it is a major adjuvant in thetreatment of all other infectious diseases.”

Virus Pneumonia: female, 28 years, temperature = 1060, chest and head coldtwo weeks, severe headache, stuporous, dehydration. Antibiotics were of nohelp.

Treatment: 1000 cc of 5% dextrose in a saline solution and four grams ofC. Temperature to 1000 in eleven hours. Then every two to three hours-twoto four grams of C was given intravenously. At 72 hours the patient wasalert, sitting up and swallowing fluids. Vitamin C treatment wasmaintained for another two weeks: two grams every twelve hours. Thiaminwas given for deafness (due to previous antibiotics and encephalitis);hearing normal in ten days. X-ray did not clear up for another two tothree months.

In a 58 year-old man with a severe viral pneumonia only one-half therecommended dose was used (two grams every four hours). He slowly improved(three grams in six hours). His dose should have been four grams everyfour hours or two grams in two hours. “The course emphasized the necessityof administering massive doses of C at frequent regular intervals so as tomaintain the proper level of this ‘antibiotic’ in the tissues.”

Dr. Klenner points out, as all doctors know, a secondary infectionfrequently gets in “on top” of the original virus infection. Viruspneumonia very commonly allows a germ to produce a bronchitis, requiringan antibiotic.

# Poliomyelitis

In polio, Vitamin C destroys the virus, acts as a diuretic removing theedema of the brain and prevents crowding of the cells lining the nervoussystem (see p. 2). The swollen, infected tissue creates a pressure in theunyielding bony vault and cuts off the blood supply to the motor cells,thus paralysis follows.

Dr. Klenner reports the findings of a Dr. McCormick who attended 50 casesof polio in Toronto, Canada (1949). The polio victims who were white breadeaters developed paralysis, but the brown bread eaters were protected fromparalysis. B vitamins seem to give anti-paralysis protection. The VitaminC relieves the pressure on the vessels so the nutrient-including B1-cannourish the cells properly.

He reports the case of a five year-old girl with paralysis of both legsaccompanied by knee and back pain. Massage was given along with Vitamin Cby injection. Within four days she was able to move both legs. She wassent home to continue the Vitamin C orally at 1000 mg every two hours. Shewalked by the eleventh day; the vitamin was stopped and B1 begun, only tenmilligrams four times each day. She was completely well by the 19th dayafter treatment had been started.

Another polio case with 104.40 temperature (measured in the armpit) severeheadache, red eyes, vomiting and tightness in the hamstrings. Two grams ofVitamin C was given intravenously immediately and again in two hours; thenevery four hours for 48 hours. In six hours after the first intravenousdose, his temperature had fallen to 1000, his eyes cleared up, he wasjovial, sitting and drinking fluids. He would have them on 1500 mg of C bymouth every two hours for a week. The C was discontinued, and he took 25mg of B1 four times a day. Dr. Klenner felt B1 should be continued for aperiod of at least three months because nerve tissue is slow to recover.

In another article about viruses in 1949 (Southern Medicine and Surgery,vol. 111, #7, July) he states his frustration at the lack of ability ofstandard researchers to recognize their failure in treating viraldiseases; they did not give big enough doses frequently enough. He foundan unbelievable record of these failed studies in the ten years before hewrote this article.

He concentrated on the response of poliomyelitis to Vitamin C in thisarticle. He knew that the virus was floating about in the blood stream andthat large doses of Vitamin C would destroy the virus before it got to thenervous system. Dr. Klenner reviewed the literature in 1948 because he washaving consistent, positive responses with Vitamin C; he was encouragedwhen he read that some investigators had discovered low levels of C in theurine of humans and animals when infected with the polio virus. He feltthere was a “relationship between the degree of Vitamin C saturation andthe infectious and noninfectious state.” An Australian, Heaslip, showed a“correlation between the severity of the attack and the level of urinaryexcretion of the vitamin.” A “deficiency of Vitamin C in the dietpredisposed to infection and to the severity of the attack.”

One report he cited was published by Jungeblut in 1937. If Vitamin C wasgiven during the incubation stage in monkeys, the subsequent disease wasmuch less severe. But if the disease was in its fifth day, much largerdoses of C were required. Even when but 100 mg of C were given in 24 hoursto these experimental monkeys, there were six times the number ofnon-paralytic survivors as in the control group.

Dr. Sabin attempted to discredit the use of Vitamin C in controlling polioin monkeys but did not give enough (100mg), and the monkeys had unmodifiedpoliomyelitis. Scurvy is surely an invitation to infection, but theabsence of scurvy does not assure an adequate immune system-especiallywhen an infection invades. Malnutrition plays a definite role insusceptibility to virus infections. “Thousands of children owe theirparalyzed limbs to this unfortunate blunder of Sabin.”

He arbitrarily adopted the following routine injection schedule: 1000 to2000 mg initially depending upon age. The intramuscular route was used forchildren under age four years. If the fever dropped in two hours, two morehours was allowed before the second dose. After 24 hours, if the feverremained down, this same dose was given every six hours for the next 48hours. All sixty cases were well in 72 hours. Three however, had arelapse, so the C was continued in all 60 cases for another two days everyeight to twelve hours.

Home treatment was 2000 mg injected every six hours plus 1000 to 2000 mgorally every two hours.

Two of the 60 patients had throat muscle paralysis and needed oxygen anddrainage but were recovering in 36 hours.

In a follow up article on “The Vitamin and Massage Treatment for AcutePoliomyelitis” (Southern Medicine and Surgery, vol. 114, #8, August, 1952)he summarized his years of treatment of this scourge that hit everysummer. He felt much of the fear about the disease was due to recklesspropaganda. It is a dramatic disease mainly affecting children. At thattime the standard treatment was the splinting of the affected muscles fortwo to eight weeks to prevent any kind of motion. Surgery was then used tocorrect contractions and stabilize joints. At about that same time SisterKenny was urging the use of hot moist packs and early passive motion torelieve spasm. Dr. Klenner used pillows to rest the affected muscles,immediate and continuous massage and passive motion, and, of course,Vitamin C to kill the virus, reduce the swelling in the brain, support theexhausted adrenals and rehabilitate damaged nerve tissue.

Reducing spinal fluid pressure is important to allow nutrients to reachthe shocked nerve cells. The edema fluid “pressure in the central nervoussystem is the end result of the inflammatory reaction caused by thevirus.” it is probably augmented by a deficiency of Vitamin B1. Earlyresearchers tried to relieve this pressure by the use of hypertonic sugar(10% dextrose) solutions designed to pull the fluid from the brain,relieving the headache and allowing the circulation to open upsufficiently to permit nutriments into the dying cells. It is known thatvirus infections deplete the Vitamin C content of the adrenals. Chemicalreactions follow resulting in high blood sugar; “apparently the adrenalmedulla is released from its inhibiting mechanism allowing a concentrationof free adrenaline in the blood high enough to cause vasoconstriction.”Glucose would only serve to aggravate this artificial diabetes (Maybe thisis why some children develop diabetes after a virus infection, notablymumps).

Vitamin C works as a destroyer of the virus but also as a safe and potentdehydrator and diuretic. (Most patients complain of thirst after an I.V.of ascorbic acid.) “Given in massive doses it will relieve the edemapressure of the cord and brain, thus allowing normal amounts of B1 toreach chemically shocked nerve cells.” He occasionally used hypertonicsodium lactate as a dehydrator.

Vitamin C is proven to be low in the blood and tissues of virus victims.In a loading test, Heaslip found the urine of virus infected patients onlyrevealed 20% of the ingested dose compared to healthy controls whoexcreted 44% of the swallowed C.

Jungeblut, a Vitamin C researcher, observed:

1. If a paralytic dose of polio virus were injected into the brains ofmonkeys, they all developed paralytic polio. If, however, Vitamin C wasinjected along with the virus, the animals remained free of the disease.
2. If monkeys were infected with a high dose of the virus, Vitamin C byinjection failed to modify the disease course.
3. If less virus were given and the Vitamin C was kept at 100 mg per day,the results were variable. Dr. Klenner felt that the virus dose was notstandard, and the Vitamin C was too small and too infrequently given.

Dr. Klenner felt the best time to treat the virus was during the viremiastage; that is, when it was floating about in the blood stream and had notinvaded the tissues. He repeats: “For optimum results the vitamin must begiven in massive doses, every two to four hours, around the clock.”Intestinal absorption is inconsistent; it must be given by needle.

Dr. Klenner wondered if some of the manifestation of polio might be due tomild scurvy. Fever, vomiting, diarrhea, aches are all seen with scurvy andwith polio. Certainly when Vitamin C is given all these symptoms and signsdisappear. Was it scurvy or polio?

He points out the similarities in pathology in the nerve cells of polioand beri-beri (B1 deficiency). He believed this sequence: the virus causesa Vitamin C deficiency which stresses the medulla of the adrenal gland.Adrenaline is released, which causes not only vascular constriction butaffects carbohydrate metabolism, that is, it causes the blood sugar torise. B1, thiamin, is absolutely necessary for sugar metabolism, and mostdiets are low in B1. In addition, absorption of vitamins and foods aredecreased when a disease is active. The Adrenaline-induced constriction ofthe blood vessels about the intestines cuts some of the blood supply tothe intestinal enzymes. Pyruvic acid accumulates at the neuromuscularjunction. To metabolize pyruvates, an enzyme, cocarboxylase, is required.This enzyme has two B1 molecules combined with phosphate; no B1, noaction. When pyruvates accumulate at this area, fatigue is the result. Theflaccid paralysis of polio is related. B1 therapy is indicated for polioand most cases of fatigue. “Nerve and muscle cells in a flaccid extremitymay be only tired, but it is reasonable to believe that unless they arerelieved promptly, they may die.” Massage would improve the circulationand help remove toxic agents during this emergency.

In 1956 Dr. Klenner published, “Poliomyelitis-Case Histories” (Tri-StateMedical Journal, Sept). He had a continuing supply of zingers he wouldthrow at doctors who insisted on disregarding his logic. He quotes Ratner,“There are two ways of practicing the medical art: the first is to employart; the second is to employ fancy.” If one has used speculation,preconceived opinions and prejudice, then he is proceeding by emotions,faith and dreams. We must proceed by REASON. Husky put it, “Sciencecommits suicide when it adopts a creed.”

He was disturbed by the enthusiasm preached by the vaccine enthusiasts.They claim that the dead Salk vaccine was safe and that it makesantibodies. He was convinced that was not true. He argued for a livevirus, which would be more likely to give the recipients protectiveantibodies. 98% of all adults possess these antibodies. He seems to bearguing for all of us to acquire a natural immunity to all viralinfections by taking enough Vitamin C to attenuate the disease no matterwhen it strikes.

He suggests for poliomyelitis:

1. Gentle massage for paralysis, continuous in the first few hours.
2. Ascorbic acid, best intravenously, at 300 to 500 mg per kg of weight.In small children: two to three grams intramuscularly every two to fourhours. Ice on the injected muscle will assuage the pain.
3. He suggests penicillin and sulfa drugs would be worthwhile, (I woulddisagree).
4. Desoxycortisone acetate is suggested daily x 3.
5. Thiamin, 100 to 250 mg a day for three months will help rehabilitatethe nerves.
6. And make the patient EAT.

He reports some severely ill adults with polio. They had a high fever, 4+headaches on a scale of one to four, deep eye pain, stilt neck, musclepain and spasm in the hamstring muscles. Blood tests were negative forbacterial infection.

Injections of twelve to twenty-two grams of Vitamin C were given everytwelve hours for six to eight times. The headaches and fever were improvedin 48 hours, and most were well in six to ten days at which time oral Cwas substituted: 1,500 mg or so at three to four hour intervals. Then theB1 for three months to heal the nerves.

# Hepatitis

Vitamin C will cure viral hepatitis in two to four days and allow thepatient to resume his usual activities. (500-700 mg/kg body weight takenorally; approximately 30 grams/24 hours in orange juice). Dr. Klennerreports that Dr. Bauer at the University Clinic at Basel, Switzerland usedjust ten grams daily intravenously. It proved to be the best treatmentavailable. He indicated that hepatitis (infectious and serum) can bereversed in a few days using intravenous Vitamin C. Heavy exercise had noeffect on the outcome. [Freebern]

1) A 27 year old male with 1030 temperature, nausea and jaundice of threedays. 60 grams of sodium ascorbate in 600 cc of normal saline was givenintravenously at 120 drops/minute. Five grams of Vitamin C was givenorally every four hours around the clock. Fifteen grams of C was againgiven three hours after the first I.V. Another 60 grams of C was givenintravenously twelve hours after the initial one (he used 5% glucose inwater this time). That one took 75 minutes to accomplish. Then anotherfifteen grams of C intravenously after two more hours.

For the 30 hours of treatment he received 270 grams intravenously and 45grams orally-no diarrhea. Temperature was normal at this time and urineclear of bile. Discharged from the hospital, he was back to work. C setsin as a flash oxidizer and helps the body manufacture interferon, anatural antiviral agent.

2) A 22 year old male with chills and fever and a diagnosis of viralhepatitis. His roommate had been admitted the day before. Fifteen grams ofsodium ascorbate was given intravenously every twelve hours for threedays, then once daily for six days. Sodium ascorbate was swallowed at fivegrams every four hours (135 grams intravenously, and 180 grams orally). Nodiarrhea appeared with these doses. He was sent home on the sixth day withno fever and no bile in the urine. Soon he was back to work. His roommatewith just bed rest was in the hospital for 26 days!

3) Another male contracted hepatitis in Central America. There, he gotlemon juice orally and rectally. Hot mud packs were placed over his liver.He had 1040 degree temperature and was sent home. He was told to try bedrest and a protein diet. When Dr. Klenner saw him, he was jaundiced,temperature = 1010 and had a very large tender liver. His I.V. was 30grams sodium ascorbate and one gram calcium gluconate. Oral C: five gramsevery four hours around the clock for three days. 400 mg adenosine IM.100,000 units of palmitate Vitamin A given daily. On the fourth day he got70 grams ascorbate intravenously and one gram calcium. On the sixth day,he got another 70 grams intravenously, and on the seventh day thebilirubin in the serum was down to 1.9 compared to 98 on the first day;SGOT had fallen from 450 to 45. At home he took fifteen grams of C orally,1,400 mg of choline three times a day plus a high protein and carbohydratediet-no sequelae.

4) A 42-year-old male suffering from chronic hepatitis had beenunsuccessfully treated with steroids for seven months. He was given Bcomplex and Vitamin C: 45 grams of sodium ascorbate plus one gram ofcalcium gluconate in 500 cc of water with 5% glucose was givenintravenously three times a week. He took five grams of C orally everyfour hours. He was free of the disease in five months. Dr. Klenner felt ifhe had more massive and continuous doses in the hospital he would havebeen well in a few weeks, but his peers on the staff would have denied thepatient this safe treatment.

Dr. Klenner reemphasized the point, “Sodium ascorbate in amounts rangingup to 900 mg per kilogram body weight every eight to twelve hours willeffect cures in two to four days.” Adenosine, 400 to 1,200 mg.intramuscularly, daily.

He felt that the risk of serum hepatitis from dialysis machines could beeliminated by flushing the machines with 50 grams of sodium ascorbate.When he needed to give a patient a blood transfusion he always added tengrams of sodium ascorbate to each pint. The Japanese, he said, have addedbut five grams of C to each unit of blood; result, no hepatitis and inthousands of cases.

# Herpes Simplex & Zoster

Adenosine, 400 mg is given intramuscularly upon diagnosis. Fifteen gramsof sodium ascorbate intravenously is next using a six-cc syringeintravenously. Then a second dose of adenosine, 400 mg, 30 minutes afterthe C. Paint the lesion with tincture of benzoin. Then apply calominelotion with 5% phenol. Continue to paint only the raw areas, but apply thecalomine and phenol to entire area. Continue the injections every twelvehours for three days then daily for several days. A B complex capsule with100 mg of each of the B’s along with “massive” amounts of Vitamin A orallyare taken daily.

To control pain after the lesions heal, a daily I.V. is used containingthiamin, 1000 mg; pyridoxine, 300 mg; niacinamide, 600 mg, diluted totwenty cc with saline, daily for five days. He uses twenty-three gauge,one inch needle.

Herpes simplex must he treated as above for 72 hours as recurrences arecommon if treatment is shortened.

Fever blisters: three percent ointment of Vitamin C applied to the lipsten to fifteen times a day in a water soluble base speeds up the cure. Athree-percent solution of ascorbic acid used as a douche will heal acervical erosion; direct application of this solution by the physicianwould be prudent. Twenty grams of C orally each day would “erase this formof malignancy.” Dr. Klenner points out that the cancer seems to hit thosewith a hereditary tendency; a virus grows more eagerly in the susceptible.If there is a family tendency, oral C in large doses as a preventativemakes sense.

# Chicken Pox

Vitamin C orally is less reliable. Dr. Klenner noted his own daughterstruggling with chicken pox. She was getting 24 grams a day, but papulesspread and the itch was intense. After one gram of C intravenously, theitch stopped and she slept well for eight hours. A new I.V. was then givenand no new rash appeared. (Untreated chicken pox victims break out forfive full days). He noted this ability of C to terminate the usualprogress of virus diseases.

One to three injections of 400 mg per kg every eight hours will dry upchicken pox in 24 hours. Controls nausea with one gram of C per five cc offluid. Thirst is precluded if a glass of juice is drunk just before theI.V.

# Hard Measles

He reports some cases:

1. A ten month old baby had the high fever, watery nose, dry cough, thered eyes, and the Koplik spots that gave the disease away: hard measles.He gave 1000 mg of C every four hours. After twelve hours the temperaturehad fallen to 97.50; the cough had stopped and the redness of themembranes had cleared. Just to see if this improvement happened to be thenatural course of the disease, he stopped the C for just eight hours. Thefever rose to 103.40. The C injections were resumed and the fever droppedin a few hours to 990. 1000 mg was given every four hours; no rashdeveloped.

II. An eight-year-old developed measles and mumps closely followed byencephalitis (T-1040). He could not eat, was stuporous and responded onlyto pain. Two hours after one injection of 2000 mg of Vitamin C, he sat up,ate a hearty meal and then played. In six hours he started to revert tohis previous stupor, and the fever returned. Twelve hours after a secondinjection of two grams, and 1000 mg every two hours by mouth, herecovered. Dr. Klenner said, “The rude irritability shown prior to thefirst injection of Vitamin C was strikingly absent.” I think what he wantsthe reader to grasp is that the symptoms of these devastating virusdiseases are similar to the clues seen in scorbutic patients.

The bloody nose is common in measles, but can be relieved with one or twoinjections of Vitamin C (one to four grams depending on individualdifferences). Bleeding tendencies are common with scurvy. Did the diseaseallow the scurvy to become manifest? These symptoms are due to acuteVitamin C loss and are nature’s way to ask for help.

# Mumps

He reports cases of influenza, encephalitis, and measles easily cured withVitamin C injections and oral doses. A 23-year-old male developed mumpsplus bilateral orchitis; his fever was 1050, and he was in overwhelmingpain with “testicles the size of tennis balls.” After one 1000-mginjection of Vitamin C intravenously the pain began to subside and aftersix more shots spaced every two hours the pain was gone. The fever wasnormal in 36 hours. He was up, about and well in 60 hours. Total dose25,000 mg.

# Mononucleosis

Dr. Klenner felt mono is related to cancer because the same virus(Epstein-Barr) is found in Burkett’s lymphoma. The disease, mono, can beeliminated with an I.V. of C in just a few days, “The actual time beingdirectly proportional to the amount of the vitamin employed in relation tothe severity of the infection.” (Most of us use Dr. Cathcart’s formula forthe amount of C to be given: “I think this is a 50 gram disease: somefever, generalized aches, but ambulatory.”) In one patient who was giventhe last rites by her church, the girl’s mother took things into her ownhands when the attending physician refused to give ascorbic acid. In eachbottle of I.V. fluid she would secretly and quickly “tap in” 20 -30 gramsof Vitamin C. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Her mother has herBS in nursing and has been a long time advocate of massive “C” therapy.(100 gram disease: 102-1030, holding down fluids but needs to stay in bed,miserable. 200 gram disease: 104 degree temperature, semi-comatose,somewhat dehydrated; hospitalization a good idea.)

The theory behind the use of adenosine: ascorbic acid stimulates an enzymewhich breaks down the nucleic acid in the virus. Some individuals cannotmanufacture enough adenosine to aid this enzyme activity. Purines arecatabolized and are thus unavailable for the production of new viralnucleic acid.

# Other Diseases

Dr. Klenner tells the reader about curing diphtheria with Vitamin Cintravenously or intramuscularly. Bacillary dysentery is stopped in 48hours with injections of C.

Pancreatitis. He treated but one case of this. He put 60 grams of sodiumascorbate in 1000 cc of 5% dextrose in water and let it drip in rapidlyand the patient was able to go home in twelve hours.

Cardiovascular diseases, hypermenorrhea, peptic and duodenal ulcers,postoperative and radiation sickness, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever,poliomyelitis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, tularemia, whooping cough,and tuberculosis.

In one case of scarlet fever, antibiotics had no effect, but the feverresponded dramatically when 50 grams of C was given intravenously.

Others – Massive doses for rheumatic fever. C will cure TB by removal ofthe organism’s coat. Also pneumonia-(so it does not matter if one has aviral or bacterial pneumonia, it works).

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Dr. Klenner was an authority in thetreatment of this rather debilitating, serious disease because hispractice was right in the middle of a constant locus of infection for tickbite fever.

Dr. Klenner had been taught in his training that there was no cure for it,only supportive. So when he was confronted with an obvious case-104.40degree temperature, spots over body, coma, and positive blood test-hequickly gave 30 grams of C intravenously every six hours. The patient wasgiven para-aminobenzoic acid orally, six grams, every two hours x3, then 4grams every two hours for 24 hours, then 4 grams every 4 hours until hisfever was gone for 24 hours. At about the sixth hour of treatment hebecame conscious and rational. He was sent home on the sixth day, fullyrecovered.

He reported the story of a twelve-year-old female with spots and 1050temperature. She was given chloroamphenicol and PABA but with only a poorresponse on the third day, so she was given an I.V. with 30 grams of C. Intwo hours she was almost well, cheerful and responsive. She was given 30grams every eight hours and was well and home in seven days.

He wrote of his son, sick with R.M.S.F. who almost died. He needed VitaminC, vibramycin (an antibiotic), PABA. Thiamin 1000 mg, B2 300 mg, and B3500 mg were added to the I.V.’s daily. On the third day his temperaturewas still up (105 degrees); he was losing interest, and candida wasdeveloping. He finally got well on the fourth day.

What Dr. Klenner shows and tells us that with a devastating disease likeR.M.S.F.; everything known to be helpful should be used. It seems obviousthat antibiotics have a place, but Vitamin C is extremely useful. Hepointed out one medical center used the large doses of PABA, and had nofatalities, except a six year old who was given only one half thecalculated dose.

The C is given around the clock and at the 500-900 mg per kg body weightlevel. The disease “can always be reversed.”

Dr. Klenner even treated trichinosis. In the Tri-State Medical Journal forApril, 1954, an article entitled, “The Treatment with Massive Doses ofVitamin C and Para-Amino-Benzoic Acid” Dr. Klenner pointed out thatsixteen percent of humans in the U.S. have these worms. An acute case willhave puffy eyelids, high eosinophil count in the blood stream, pain andswelling of the muscles, fever, profuse sweating, cough and profoundweakness. The eosinophil count is high with some allergies also. He foundthat the lymphocytes stimulate anti-body formation and that thelymphocytes rise with the patient’s recovery.

He reported the case of a man who had eaten sausage. He came down with afever (1040), very puffy skin of the eyelids, hacking cough. Tests werepositive for trichinosis and the eosinophil count was fifteen percent(normal less than four percent).

He was given large doses of C by needle because it would aid antibodyformation and to detoxify him. Calcium gluconate, one gram every day forseveral days. Antibiotics were worthless.

Fever rose to 1060, and he lapsed into a semi-coma. As it reminded Dr.Klenner of tick bite fever, he forced para-aminobenzoic acid down histhroat. Four grams initially, then 3 grams every 2 hours. Eight hoursafter this was started he ate a full breakfast-the first in several days.His profuse sweating stopped. His temperature returned to normal. The PABAwas stopped after two days to see the effect; in 36 hours the fever wasback up to 1010. The sweating recurred.

The PABA was restarted at three grams every 2 hours during the day andevery three hours at night. After 9 days he was well, the PABA was stoppedand there was no recurrence.

Another patient, a woman, age 33, had a fever (103.40), swollen lids,eosinophils 30%, cough. She took 6 grams of PABA and then 3 grams everythree hours for 37 hours then that amount every 4 hours. Fruit juice also.Twelve grams of C was given every twelve hours. Ten grams of C orallydaily. She returned to work in eight days.

Dr Klenner had no explanation as to why PABA was a curative fortrichinosis.

Tetanus (Lockjaw). In two articles in the Tri-State Medical Journal forJune and July of 1954, he again scored some points for Vitamin C in “TheHistory of Lockjaw”, and “Recent Discoveries in the Treatment of Lockjaw.”

He stated that lockjaw is not difficult to cure. He believed that doctorsrely on antitoxin as the sole therapy because some “authority” recommendsit. Many patients are sedated “to the point of narcosis.”

He felt that the practice of injecting the tetanus antitoxin into thetissues near the wound was for medico-legal reasons as it had no benefitand might even be harmful. The antitoxin “cannot travel from thecirculation into the nervous system and unless it be injected into thenervous tissue, it is relatively valueless.”

Dr. Klenner reports on other research: Vitamin C inactivates the toxin oftetanus.

He recounted the history of a six-year-old boy who had never had anyimmunizations and developed tetanus after falling off his pony into somebrush. Over a period of three weeks the boy developed increasing muscletightness, abdominal cramps, inability to smile or open his mouth. Liquidswere all he could manage. If stimulated his back would arch so his bodywas as a bridge resting on heels and back of head.

Dr. Klenner used Tolserol to control the convulsive spasm without sedatingthe senses unduly (the FDA has taken it off the market; Methocarbamol canbe used intravenously with comparable results). The boy was treated withVitamin C, penicillin, tetanus antitoxin and Tolserol. He spent eighteen(18) days in the hospital, but the use of tetanus antitoxin seemed toaggravate the seizures and required more Vitamin C, sedatives and its usedefinitely prolonged the hospitalization.

He received 2 to 4 grams of Vitamin C every four to six hours dependingupon the symptoms and within one hour he would be calm and free of spasms.The idea was to help the body’s natural detoxifying process. He alsodeveloped hives from the TAT or the penicillin and needed Benadryl andAdrenaline for that.

He summarized the treatment of tetanus:

1. debride and clean any wound thoroughly. (He felt ether was good becauseit kills most bacteria without destroying tissue.)
2. 75,000 units antitoxin deep intramuscularly above the wound,
3. intravenous fluids,
4. massive doses of Vitamin C intravenously around the clock,
5. intradermal tetanus toxoid, 0.1 cc for five consecutive days,
6. intravenous Tolserol-now Methocarbamol. He felt all states should passlegislation requiring tetanus toxoid for all ages.

He felt that the number of fatalities from the disease were equal to thenumber of those who die from the treatment. He emphasized some principlesof treatment 30 to 40 years ago that many of us have forgotten: namely, dono harm, and the body has tremendous restorative powers if the doctor willsupply it with the raw materials to promote recovery.

Urethritis: Dr. Klenner points to the study done by Rous in 1971. Onlythree grams of Vitamin C per day stopped the pain and frequency ofurination in just four days. Apparently alkaline urine allows phosphatecrystals to form; Vitamin C acidified the urine and the crystals went backinto solution.

Chronic cystitis is usually associated with alkaline urine. Germs growmore easily in this alkaline urine. Vitamin C will discourage thesebacteria and cut the chance of an ascending infection which mightdevastate the kidneys (pyelitis). Ten grams of C per day are suggested.

# Other Conditions

Antabuse is a chemical used to discourage alcoholics from drinking.Alcohol and Antabuse in the body form acetaldehyde; the person feelsawful; weak, headaches even coma as this case illustrates. Dr. Klennerfelt he may have been the first to recommend Vitamin C in the control ofthis chemical reaction. The man was on Antabuse. At one Christmas holidayhis “friends” persuaded him to drink with them. Shortly thereafter he wasbrought to the emergency room where Dr. Klenner happened to be. He wasunconscious with BP of 90/60. He suffered from shock (same clinicalpicture with barbiturate poisoning.) His I.V. was 500 ml of 10% glucose inwater with 50 grams of sodium ascorbate. After 30 grams had run in, heawakened, felt well and wanted to go home. He got the whole 50 grams inthree hours and was sent home. He also received oxygen by nasal mask.

The company that manufactures Antabuse suggests but one gram intravenouslyas an antidote calling it “massive.” Dr. Klenner felt that amount was“without value.”

For acute alcoholism Dr. Klenner has given 1000 mg of thiaminintramuscularly every two hours until recovery. Pyridoxine, 500 mg isgiven every six hours. 40 grams of C intravenously will detoxify thepatient.

Arthritis: Vitamin C counteracts the damaging effects of aspirin. C is thenumber one precursor for collagen formation. If serum levels of C arehigh, synovial fluid is thinner allowing for easier joint movement. Thosetaking 15 to 25 grams daily will experience commensurate benefit.Prevention seems prudent. “A person who will take ten to twenty grams ofascorbic acid a day along with other nutrients might very well neverdevelop arthritis.”

Cancer: He cites Schlegel’s (Tulane University) use of ascorbic acid (1.5grams a day only) in preventing bladder cancer recurrence. “This is the socalled wasted Vitamin C.”

He “demonstrated that in the presence of ascorbic acid, carcinogenicmetabolites will not develop in the urine. They suggested that spontaneoustumor formation is the result of faulty tryptophan metabolism while urineis retained in the bladder.” Other researchers report that the depletionof mast cells from guinea pig skin was due to ascorbic acid deficiency. Itsuggests Vitamin C is necessary for the formation and maintenance of mastcells.

Vitamin C will control myelocytic leukemia with 25-30 grams orally daily.“How long must we wait for someone to start continuous ascorbic acid dripfor two to three months, giving 100 to 300 grams each day, for variousmalignant conditions?

Small basal cell epithelioma: 30% Vitamin C ointment.

He cites a disturbing study: particles resembling viruses were found insome breast milk samples of women with breast cancer. Could this help toexplain why some cancers seem to be “inherited?” It makes sense that allmembers of cancer prone families should be taking at least ten grams of Cdaily.

His protocol for treating cancer is printed here in total, although I donot understand the rationale for some of the ingredients. All of this isdesigned to kill the cancer cells by shoring up the immune system. He evenrecognized the therapeutic value for a positive attitude.

1. Use radioactive cobalt when and where indicated.
2. Give 45 grams of sodium ascorbate intravenously every twelve hours forone month. Then use 60 to 65 grams in 500 cc of normal saline or 5%dextrose in water for five days a week until a cure is obtained. Itusually takes five months.
3. Each bottle is to contain one gram of calcium gluconate, a cc of some Bcomplex, plus 1,200 mg of thiamin, 300 mg of pyridoxine, and 600 mg ofniacinamide.
4. Oral sodium ascorbate, 5, 10, 20, grams daily. The dose depends uponthe bowel tolerance.
5. Vitamin A palmitate, 50,000 units, daily, orally.
6. Pantothenic acid, (B5) one gram orally four times a day.
7. Amino acid protein powder with all the eighteen amino acids. 60 tabletseach day or, if a powder, several tablespoons daily. This supports theimmune system and the enzymes. Tyrosine should be taken separately, ifpossible, as this one makes the others work better; 500 mg tablets-sixdaily.
8. In addition, a high protein diet using white chicken meat, fresh fish,chicken livers, and brown-shelled eggs. Beef (but once a week) should beas lean as possible: lean stew beef or sirloin tip are the best but havethe butcher grind it three times. Hamburgers? Only once a week. No sugarand no starches. Fruit and fruit juices are permitted. Almonds areexcellent.
9. 30 to 40 apricot almonds should be chewed every day in divided dosesuntil a continuous bitter almond taste develops. At this point the patientcuts the dose in half. “This will form cyanide by way of the stomach acid.Cyanide will kill cancer cells. Vitamin C will protect one against thelethal effects of cyanide. It is the antidote. 500 mg tablets of vitaminB17 are available. One after each meal and at bed time.” (Not everyonewould agree with this part of the therapy. Cancer victims are stillgetting amygdalin B17, as injections from Mexico, but there is some doubtas to its efficacy. LHS)
10. Vitamin E, d-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 400 International unit size,3,200 units daily. Don’t take iron with it.
11. One pint of grape juice daily.
12. B complex tablets with 100 mg of each of the B’s and 100 mcg of B12.Six to eight tablets daily. Theragran-M or a similar capsule with all theminerals to replace what is being pulled out by the C.
13. Maintain the hemoglobin at 13 grams.
14. Keep a good attitude.

He reported a case of a man with lymph glands all over his body. He gotthe above treatment and although the glands increased in size for a while,his liver and spleen were back to normal size in four months. Dr. Klennernoticed a ‘parachute-like’ substance in the urine. Microscopic examinationrevealed they were clumps of cancer cells.

Another case was that of a woman who had an adenocarcinoma of two yearsduration. She had had chemotherapy, two surgeries and extensive radiationover her chest, especially the neck area where the cancerous glands were.The cancer had spread to her lungs, her abdomen and six glands in herneck. Dr. Klenner gave her the above protocol. In three months the lesionin her lung had cleared and gone were the glands in her neck. After sixmonths of intravenous Vitamin C and the B complex, the abdominal masseshad disappeared, but she could not swallow food. The radiation had scarredher esophagus beyond dilatation and she refused more surgery. The cancerwas gone; she died from starvation due to the radiation.

Dr Klenner summarized this paper with this: “The results suggest thatlarger daily amounts could be given in a hospital with faster results. Iwould suggest at least 100 grams in 1000 cc of fluid and given everytwelve to 24 hours. The vitamins and the calcium gluconate also must begiven.” He thought interferon could be assayed while the patient is in thehospital. “How long will it take for the general population to challengethe drug cartel?”

There is a relationship of Vitamin C and cholesterol. Scorbutic guineapigs have high cholesterol levels. Way back in 1947 high intravenous dosesof Vitamin C were found effective in lowering cholesterol levels. Oneresearcher [Spittle, 1971, Lancet] postulated that arteriosclerosis mightbe the end result of a long term deficiency or negative balance of VitaminC. [Hecker] He and Dr. Klenner saw the cholesterol levels in the blood ofsubjects vary with the amount of C used. In one patient the cholesterolwas lowered 42 mg percent in six weeks when his oral intake of Vitamin Cwas increased from 10 grams a day to 20 grams a day.

This all makes sense as “the main pathway of cholesterol catabolism is inconversion to bile salts.” Vitamin C aids in the enzymatic conversion.Guinea pigs, who like humans cannot manufacture their own Vitamin C, willuse up dietary Vitamin C if fed a high cholesterol diet. “Guinea Pigs feda diet free of ascorbic acid showed a 600% acceleration in cholesterolformation in the adrenal glands.” The Soviets have published many articlesdemonstrating these effects. This might explain why colds and virus fluare more common in the winter because fresh fruits and vegetables are lessavailable and fat in the diet in the winter might use up Vitamin C faster.Gallstones can be made to develop in guinea pigs when fed a diet rich incholesterol and low in C.

(In Medical School we were given the mnemonic to aid in the diagnosis ofthe gall stone victims: “Fair, fat, and forty.” Susceptibility plusdietary factors; it makes a lot of sense.)

Dr. Klenner quotes the literature as to the use of Vitamin C in coronaryartery disease in animals as well as humans. Arteriosclerosis develops inguinea pigs when fed a high cholesterol diet but develops rapidly inscorbutic animals even without exogenous cholesterol. Extra C was able toabsorb the plaques. The diet is important, but extra C seems to becritical especially in those with a family tendency.

“We must protect our hearts from stress. Adequate Vitamin C is oneanswer.” Where did Linus Pauling learn about his need for large doses?Probably from Dr. Klenner. “Mortality rate for middle-aged people droppedsignificantly with increased doses of Vitamin C” [Dr. Klenner was quotingJ. Stamler from Comprehensive Treatment of Essential HypertensiveDiseases. Monograph on Hypertension, Merck, Sharp and Dohme.] Paulingcurrently takes 18 grams a day. He seems to be doing well at the age of 86years (July, 1987). [Dr. Pauling lived to 93 years -ed.]

Cavities: A gram of Vitamin C every day for each year of life (five gramsa day for the five year old) will prevent cavities. Ten grams a day fromage ten years for a lifetime should maintain that advantage.

He quotes Shaw who felt that deposits on the teeth represent a pre-scurvycondition and that those so afflicted should be taking 2000 mg a day of Cbefore some nasty virus strikes.

Disc, ruptured intervertebral: will be prevented with the ten-grams-a-daydose. Adequate amounts seem necessary for disc metabolism and maintenance.

Corneal ulcers: healed with but 1.5 grams of C daily. The pain of acorneal burn was relieved immediately with twelve grams of Cintravenously. The cornea was normal in 24 hours. [Boyd & Campbell]

Diabetes: He noted back in 1951 that the urine in his patients showed areducing substance; severe virus infections will allow sugar to spill intothe urine. Vitamin C acts as a reducing agent and it would appear thatdiabetes has been induced.

He reported the story of a seven year old diabetic, who developed measles,and his insulin requirements went from 5 units to more than 90 units aday, but with one gram of Vitamin C every four hours his infection andelevated blood sugar came under control. In these diabetic cases, theVitamin C can be cut back to reasonable levels after the infection isunder control. Large prolonged doses of “Vitamin C might prove undesirabledue to its dehydrating and diuretic powers.”

He feels that the pathological condition in this case means thatadrenaline was flooding the boy’s system. The regulator of the adrenalinemechanism had been removed so the constant supply caused a prolongedvascular constriction. This action on the blood vessels creates asphyxiaof the tissues leading to acidosis. This acidity leads to adrenalinehyperglycemia. “Slight blood sugar elevation can be controlled with sodiumbicarbonate. This vascular constriction is operative in the pancreas andcould restrict the production of insulin and pancreatic enzymes.”

As a matter of fact Dr. Klenner had been studying the effects of ten gramsof C per day orally in patients with diabetes mellitus; 60% were able tocontrol the condition with diet and C. The other 40% were able to reducethe insulin dose. Wounds healed more readily. The C assists the liver inits function of carbohydrate metabolism.

Glaucoma: Dr. Klenner was disturbed that marijuana was being used for thereduction of intraocular pressure. ”One would need to be a chain smoker tomaintain worthwhile levels.“ He quotes Bietti who used large C doses;Virno’s patients use 35 grams of C (100 mg/kg after meals and bedtime) individed doses during the 24 hours and this osmotic dehydration of theeyeball was safe and effective. “The size of the dose does make adifference-a real difference.”

Dr. Klenner has found in his investigation of over 300 pregnancies, thatthe stress of the condition pushed the needs for C in women up to 15 gramsa day. The human fetus is a parasite draining available C from the mother.We are all different and our needs for Vitamin C vary depending uponheredity, environment, stress-or its perception. He reminds us of RogerWilliams’ research in 1968 showing that some guinea pigs needed twentytimes more Vitamin C than others to maintain their health. (The usual dosefor pregnant humans: 4 grams daily in the first trimester; 6 grams dailyin the second trimester; 8 to 10 grams in the third trimester). Heobtained excellent results with these large doses of C in women who hadbeen habitual aborters. [Greenblatt] One woman had had five miscarriagesand then with the Vitamin C went on to have two normal pregnancies. TheGerman literature is full of cases of these good results. Hemoglobin waseasier to maintain, leg cramps were less (Vitamin C enhances iron andcalcium and magnesium absorption). Striae gravidarum (stretch marks) wereseldom encountered. Labor was shorter and less painful. No post partumhemorrhage. The perineum was more elastic and if Vitamin C was maintained,it continued to remain firm.

Infants are robust with this Vitamin C. None required resuscitation. 50 mgof ascorbic acid was begun on the infant’s second day and was graduallyincreased as time went on. A set of quadruplets in this series werehealthy and taking milk on the second day. It is especially helpful forthe rapidly growing connective tissue, teeth and blood vessels. [King]

Schizophrenia: Dr. Klenner reminds us of Hoffer and Osmond’s work withniacin and Vitamin C back in the early 1950’s. Six to 8 grams of C a daymade the niacin work. One schizophrenic took one gram every hour for 48hours and was completely recovered for six months with no furthertreatment. These megadoses halved the suicide rate. It has beendemonstrated that schizophrenics burn up C ten times faster than thenormal population. Most people show some spill of C in the urine at 4grams per day; schizophrenics have to take ten times this amount before itcan be detected. Dr. Klenner noticed this spillage in patients severelyaffected with a virus only after two to three days of large doses of C andimprovement had begun. (Could schizophrenia be due to a virus?)

Burns: can be treated with Vitamin C. “30-100 grams of Vitamin C is theproper amount to employ.” (500 mg per kg of body weight diluted to atleast 18 cc per gram of C using 5% dextrose or saline in water or Ringer’ssolution, repeated every eight hours for several days, then at twelve hourintervals. Calcium gluconate is added.) “Vitamin C is given until healingtakes place.” It takes seven to thirty days depending upon the degree ofthe burn. It may prevent the need for grafting as it keeps the tissuesoxygenated thus preventing the blood from sludging. [Kniseley] On thefourth to fifth day the malodorous burn eschars will fall off leavingnormal tissue. Vitamin C also eliminates pain; opiates are less necessary.(It stimulates endorphin production in the brain.)

In an article he published in the ICAN Journal (there is no date, but itwas probably published in 1973 or 74) he states that Vitamin C is truly amiracle substance. He believed that large doses of intravenous Vitamin Cearly in the post-burn phase would eliminate the third degree burn withits infection and scarring. Blood sludging seems to be the basic villainthat leads to rigid masses of eschar. [Berkeley] Oxygen is cut off. Tissuedestruction is added to already burn-damaged skin. Vitamin C levels in theblood and urine drop. [Lund & Levenson; Lam] Vitamin C is necessaryfor granulation tissue and skin formation. [Bergman] Three percentascorbic acid solution is used as a spray every two to four hours for fivedays. [Klasson]

Pseudomonas: (a nasty bacteria, often seen in burn patients; veryresistant to antibiotics): three percent spray plus massive injections.

Heat stroke: 500 mg per kg of body weight will reverse it.

Sunburn: One gram taken every one to two hours during exposure willprevent sunburn; an I.V. injection will quickly relieve the pain anderythema. Even second-degree burns will be healed.

Prickly heat, heat stroke, heat collapse can all be treated; the latterneeds twelve to forty grams intravenously. Electric shock patients must begiven Vitamin C immediately after the accident-including lightningvictims.

Vitamin C will control the side effects of radiation including radiationburns. “Who can say what 100 to 300 grams given intravenously daily forseveral months might accomplish in cancer? The potential is so great andthe employment so elementary that only the illiterate will continue todeny its use.”

Vitamin C inhibits the deaminizing enzymes from the damaged cells (due toburns, injury, infections). Histamine is produced by these enzymes. Theshock is controlled. [Chambers & Pollock; Clark & Rossiter]

Surgery: Way back in 1960 and again in 1966, Dr. Klenner delivered papersbefore the Tri-State Medical Society calling attention to the “scurvylevels” of C in post-operative patients. The levels began to fall sixhours after surgery and by 24 hours the levels were 3/4 lower than pre-op.Tensile strength of healing wounds is lowered if the plasma drops toscurvy levels. The lower the C levels the poorer the wound heals.[Bartlett, Lanman) Even as little a dose as 500 mg of C orally “wasremarkable successful in preventing shock and weakness,” following dentalextraction, he quotes Schumacher.

He remembers a surgery case in 1949 when he assisted a surgeon in apotentially hopeless case. Extensive adhesions of the viscera defiedseparation. The surgeon repaired twenty tears and closed the abdomen. Sheshould not have survived. The patient was given two grams of C every twohours intravenously for 48 hours and then four grams per day. In a day anda half she was up walking and in a week discharged home with normal bowelsand no pain.

30 grams should be given intravenously daily-post-operatively, until foodand pills are tolerated orally.

Dr. Klenner used 10 grams preoperatively intravenously and ten grams ineach post-operative bottle and then ten grams orally when eating wasresumed. Surgical wounds rarely separated with this method. Fractureshealed faster. (Some surgeons will give ten grams of Vitamin C at the endof the operation, and the patient is awake and alert in 60 seconds. Noneed for the nausea and vomiting in the recovery room.)

# Toxins & Heavy Metals

Heavy Metal Poisonings: Especially lead and mercury-are controlled withVitamin C injections and oral intake. An intake of Vitamin C daily willprotect animals-and by extrapolation, humans-from fatal doses of mercury.If a guinea pig needed 200 mg one day to protect it from an otherwisefatal dose of mercury, the human would need 14 grams daily. Smaller doseswould be able to protect the body from smaller amounts of the toxin.

Lead poisoning: 350 mg of Vitamin C per one kg of body weight takenintramuscularly every two to four hours; recovery in less than 72 hours.

Dr. Klenner found that the amount of C used “in any case is the allimportant factor. In 28 years of research we have observed that 30 gramseach day is critical in terms of response” regardless of age and weight.(Barbiturate intoxication, snake bite and viral encephalitis may requirelarger doses in some individuals.)

Carbon monoxide (CO): poisoning is on the rise due to smoking and cityliving. CO interferes with oxygenation of tissues as it ties uphemoglobin. (The affinity of CO for hemoglobin is 300 times that ofoxygen.) It would be especially dangerous in hearts already compromised bydiseased coronary vessels; those vessels cannot dilate in times of extraneed, e.g., CO poisoning. Smokers, and by inference, anyone exposed to COor pollution should be taking extra Vitamin C. He points to the report[Pelletier] that shows when smokers quit, their “ascorbic level approachesthat of the non-smoker.” In acute CO poisoning: if 12 to 50 grams ofVitamin C is injected rapidly into the blood stream, it acts as anoxidizer and will “pull CO from hemoglobin to form carbon dioxide” whichis easily exhaled. A burn victim should immediately receive a dose of 500mg of C per kg of body weight intravenously. It will “neutralize the CO orsmoke poisoning while at the same time it will prevent blood sludgingwhich in the major factor in the development of third degree burns.”

An accidental carbon monoxide poisoning was reversed in ten minutes with12 grams of ascorbic acid in a 50 cc syringe using a twenty gauge needle.(”We employ a twenty-gauge needle when using a 50 cc syringe; a twenty-onegauge for a thirty-cc syringe, a twenty-two gauge for a twenty cc syringeand a twenty-three gauge needle for a ten cc syringe“).

Two boys were sprayed with pesticide, one received Vitamin C (10 grams)every eight hours and went home on the second day. The other boy onlyfluids; his skin showed a bad chemical burn; he died on the fifth day.

Vitamin C will reverse the shock and low blood pressure from barbiturates,muscarine, and formic acid. One suicidal patient ingested 2640 mg ofbarbiturate. Twelve grams was administered using a 50 cc syringe. In tenminutes the blood pressure rose from 60/0 to 100/60. 100 grams was givenin the vein for three hours at which time the patient was awake. The useof large doses of C should be routine in these cases of chemical shock.“The needle used to give a syringeful of C was attached to a bottle of 5%dextrose in water with 50 grams of ascorbic acid. She received 125 gramsof C. C not only assists with hepatic metabolism but also as a majordiuretic, flushing these compounds out by way of the kidneys. Oxygen bynasal tube ran constantly.”

Another patient had taken 2400 mg of Seconal plus para-aldehyde. She wasawake after 42 grams of C was administered. The C was injected as fast asa twenty-gauge needle could carry the flow. Consequent doses of 75 gramsintravenously and thirty grams of C taken orally over a period of 24 hourssaved her life.

# Bites, Toxins, Allergies

In another Tri-State Medical Journal of December, 1957, he outlined thephysiology and treatment of Black Widow Spider poisoning in a casehistory. Some of those bitten are not affected at all because the spiderwas out of poison, but some can be devastated and may die, partly becauseof poor resistance but also due to the quantity injected.

It can be confused with pancreatitis, renal colic, food poisoning,tetanus, angina, bowel obstruction, pneumonia, perforated ulcer. Theabdominal wall muscles become rigid, the victims have cold sweat, theirtemperature and blood pressure shoot up, they vomit, have muscle twitchesand spasms, cyanosis, chills, convulsions and delirium. The painful musclespasms occur within minutes of the original bite. The cramps occur in allthe large muscles of the body; the victims roll and toss and moan inagony.

Until someone used calcium gluconate, there were 90 ineffectivetreatments. An anti-venom is on the market, but severe reactions and evendeath have been attributed to its use.

The treatment Dr. Klenner suggests is his friend, Vitamin C, 350 mg per kgof body weight intravenously along with calcium gluconate.

His three and a half year old patient had been getting worse for 24 hourswith abdominal cramps which the parents assumed were due to foodpoisoning. She became quieter, feverish, constipated and her abdomen wasexquisitely tender. She was becoming stuporous.

Dr Klenner noted the red, swollen area around her naval, and two tinyspots about one eighth of an inch apart were noted in the middle: the fangmarks of a Black Widow Spider. He gave one gram of calcium gluconate and 4grams of Vitamin C intravenously. In 6 hours she was more responsive, andher temperature had dropped from 103 degrees to 101 degrees and she wasgiven another four grams I.V.

In another six hours, her temperature was but 100 degrees, and she couldswallow fluids. The next day she was active, and 50% of the discolorationhad disappeared. She received another 4 grams of C intravenously and 3grams intramuscularly. At home she swallowed one gram of C every three tofour hours. An enema produced a bloody return. When she recovered, sheremembered brushing “a big black bug off her stomach,” before she tookill.

Dr. Klenner had treated eight cases of Black Widow Spider bites. “It iscriminal to give these patients an opiate to relieve their pain, for in sodoing you might add to their distress and actually precipitate afatality.”

“Some ascorbic acid behaves much like calcium in the body, and also actssynergistically with it, we elected to observe its action.” The child wasdestined to die. “Some physicians would stand by and see their patient dierather than use ascorbic acid because in their finite minds it exists onlyas a vitamin.”

Dr. Klenner was very confident about the benefits of intravenous Vitamin Cto treat the poisonous effects of insects and reptiles,. He felt allemergency rooms should be adequately stocked. He used sodium ascorbate,7.5 grams in 30 ml. The syringes are 5 to 60 cc. The needles are 20 gauge(big), one inch long to 31 gauge (I have trouble believing this) one inchlong. I get “miracle like responses.”

Case 1: An eighteen-year-old female was treated just twenty minutes aftera hornet bite. She was covered with hives and had shortness of breath anddifficulty swallowing. In minutes after twelve grams of sodium ascorbateintravenously were pushed in with a 50 cc syringe her allergic symptomswere gone.

Dr. Klenner took ten grams of C dissolved in water orally and again infifteen minutes to counteract the stings of fifteen yellow jackets. Nosymptoms.

Snakebite: He reported on a four-year-old girl bitten by a HighlandMoccasin. She had severe pain in her leg and was vomiting within twentyminutes after the bite. Dr. Klenner gave four grams of C intravenously andwithin half an hour she had stopped crying and could now drink orangeadeand began to laugh. “I’m all right now.” She slept well all night, butbecause of a slight fever and tenderness, Dr. Klenner gave her anotherfour grams intravenously and again that late afternoon. No antibiotics andno anti-serum were necessary.

Dr. Klenner had worked the schedule out on dogs and published it inhunting and fishing magazines. He has had many testimonials from satisfieddoctors.

“All the venom that will be encountered exists as you see the patient. Itis important to give sufficient sodium ascorbate to neutralize the bite.The more you give; the faster will be the cure. We now routinely give 10to 15 grams sodium ascorbate depending on the weight of the victim. Thenas much of the drug as can be tolerated by mouth is given, usually 5grams, every four hours.”

Usually without the use of Vitamin C patients are stuck in the hospitalrequiring hot packs, antibiotics, anti-serum and nursing care. Many end upwith much scarring.

He recited the case of a man who was treated at another emergency room.The doctor tried to cut out the local bite area.

When Dr. Klenner saw him it was badly infected and the temperature was1040. Fifteen grams of C intravenously twice daily, 5 grams of C orallyevery four hours. Penicillin injected for the infection. He was back towork in seven days.

“Sodium ascorbate will cure any type of snake bite.” The amounts and thespeed of injection are critical. Forty to 60 grams intravenously as astarter. Klenner cites the 6500 deaths a year from snake bites, but manymore from insects, bees, spider, plants and some caterpillars. Theyproduce formic acid, histamine and specific toxin albumins. Some areneurotoxins; some cause capillary damage and hemorrhage. When cells aredamaged proteins are deaminized, producing histamine and other toxicproducts; shock may occur. These deaminizing enzymes from the damagedcells are inhibited by Vitamin C. The pH of cells changes when cells aredamaged; enzymes become destructive instead of constructive. C reversesthis. Vitamin C is reduced in the serum of those in shock. 350-700 mg perkg body weight is the saving intravenous dose. In children up to two gramscan be given in each of several areas (a twenty kg five year old could gettwo grams in each of four sites. Ice before and after the injection wouldcontrol the pain).

He reports a case of a bite by a Puss caterpillar. The patient was goinginto shock with asphyxia and cyanosis. Dr Klenner whipped out his trustysyringe, filled it with 12 grams of C, squirted it into the man’s veinsand before he was done, the patient was improved enough to exclaim, “ThankGod.” And thank Dr. Klenner for figuring out what to do; the man wouldhave died from shock if it had not been for the rapid infusion of C.Again, Dr. Klenner’s maxim adds weight: Give the C while pondering thediagnosis.

Mosquito bites: eleven grams of C per day and 200 to 400 mg of B complexdaily, both by mouth.

Poison Oak or Ivy: oral Vitamin C plus a paste of C powder will controlthe contact allergy in 24 hours.

# Multiple Sclerosis & Myasthenia Gravis

Dr. Klenner also turned his attention to other nervous system diseases. Ina paper entitled, “Response of Peripheral and Central Nerve Pathology toMega-doses of the Vitamin B complex and other Metabolites,” he focuses onMultiple Sclerosis and Myasthenia Gravis. (Journal of Applied Nutrition,Vol. 25, #304, 1973).

He felt fatigue was the key to the understanding of the nervous system andits physiology. Substances are consumed for the production of energy inthe muscles. Products of this process accumulate in the tissue. Somediseases will prevent this use of available energy. The junction betweenneuron and neuron and the connection between motor nerves and the fibersof skeletal muscle are the two locations for normal fatigue.

Plants will wilt if fatigued; improper atmosphere and inadequate soil areresponsible. Animals and humans need food, oxygen and faith to stay aliveand healthy. He felt a sharecropper working in fresh open air would beless fatigued than a factory worker. Oxygen supply has much to do withfatigue.

If a muscle is repeatedly stimulated, it will become so exhausted it willfail to respond. Either the glycogen is used up, or the lactic acid hasaccumulated to a poisonous level.

(At this point he describes the aerobic and anaerobic metabolism ofmuscles. Phospho-creatine, adenosine triphosphate, calcium, magnesium andstored glycogen are all necessary for muscle function. Oxygen and smallamounts of protein play a part in muscle contraction. Acetylcholine andits esterase are essential; too much or too little of any of thesesubstances may prevent or slow down muscle action.)

Myasthenia Gravis is a disease in which too much pyruvic acid, due tofaulty metabolism, affects the interaction of acetylcholine at thejunction of the nerve and the muscle. He felt at that time that MultipleSclerosis was due to “sluggish and bizarre muscle activity due to theinability to utilize essential factors because of mechanical and chemicalroad blocks.”

He felt chemical fatigue was common. Body lassitude is the result ofingestion of sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizers and even sodiumbicarbonate. The latter can displace oxygen from hemoglobin, cutting downoxygenation of tissues. But Vitamin C will prevent this type of energyloss. Smoking aggravates this fatigue.

A person’s muscle exhaustion point is determined by his oxygen absorbingand carbon dioxide discharging ability. At rest we use 200 to 300 cc ofoxygen per minute. With sudden exertion this will rise to 2000 to 4000 cc.The more oxygen absorbed, the more lactic acid will be removed. Efficientuse of oxygen is the key to adequate energy production and removal ofwastes.

He described mental fatigue, active and passive. Passive is neurastheniaor brain fog: sensations of pressure in the head, poor memory, loss ofability to concentrate, irritability of temper, insomnia, anorexia and avariety of aches and pains.

Active mental fatigue is caused by continuous work, and this change is dueto the sensory-motor exhaustion and not the mental work per se. Theprimary area of fatigue is at the synapses which beg only diversion ofinterest and activity.

Adequate oxygen is assured if the lungs and hemoglobin are normal, butalso by taking 10 to 30 grams of ascorbic acid by mouth every 24 hours.Oxygen is released for tissue use when ascorbic acid becomesdehydroascorbic acid. Enzymes are necessary to make all these reactionspossible. Genetic faults manifest themselves through enzymaticdeficiencies.

He outlines the nineteen stops from glucose to pyruvic acid which providesenergy. This energy release depends upon oxygen and, Dr. Klenneremphasized, it is important to maintain good ventilation capacity, and, ofcourse, a substantial intake of Vitamin C.

He felt pyruvic acid metabolism was important for the understanding ofMyasthenia Gravis. Coenzyme A (COA, the active form of pantothenic acid)is in limited supply in M.G. It, COA, intercepts pyruvic acid at the endpoint of glucose metabolism. Another enzyme, cocarboxylase, splits thecarboxyl group (COOH) away from pyruvic acid to form CO2 and freehydrogen. The remaining two carbon fragment (acetate) join with coenzyme Ato form acetyl coenzyme A. A high energy package named NADH2 is formedfrom the carboxyl group from pyruvic acid and a sulfur group from coenzymeA.

Thiamin is important in all this energy production as two molecules ofthiamin combined with two molecules of phosphoric acid becomecocarboxylase. This enzyme must be present for the continuance of themetabolic cycle. When thiamin is deficient, pyruvates and lactateaccumulate, and at the neuromuscular junction the nerve end plate becomesswollen and poorly operative. That same enzyme is necessary for thesyntheses of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that initiates musclecontraction. “Thiamin deficiency inhibits lactic acid metabolism.” Athiamin deficiency means a cocarboxylase deficiency. Liver enzymes aremainly responsible for the phosphorylation of thiamin to cocarboxylase.Liver disease would obviously reduce this synthesis. “The activity ofcholine esterase (breaks down acetylcholine) is inhibited by this samedouble thiamin unit.” (See also p. 20.)

In the conversion of fatty acids to energy some of the same enzymes arenecessary: coenzyme A, hydrogen carriers (niacin-adenosine-dinucleotide)and Vitamin C. The latter acts as a hydrogen transport.

He puts Myasthenia Gravis and Multiple Sclerosis in the same therapeuticgroup as he found thiamin was the key to the therapy. M.G. is agenetically transmitted disease and M.S. is triggered by a virus andmimics poliomyelitis. Nerve damage in M.S. is due to microscopichemorrhages in the nervous system. During healing, scar tissue contractsclamping off capillary flow and nutrition. This wasting results in loss ofthe myelin sheath protection.

He felt that remyelinating these damaged nerves was every bit as hopefulas the myelination that occurs normally in infancy with nothing morespectacular than breast milk. It requires two years of treatment to repairthe damage caused by one year of the disease.

He cites works in the late 1930s by Stern at Columbia University who usedthiamin intraspinally for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis withastonishing results. After 30 mg of thiamin was injected into the spinalcanal of paralyzed MS. victims, they had a temporary remission. They couldwalk for a while. And Stern felt it was a B1 avitaminosis. It was known atthat time that polyneuritis can cause degeneration of myelin sheaths.

Dr. Klenner felt that both M.G. and M.S. were basically a disturbance ofsupply and demand and not a functional defect nor impaired diffusion. Hefollowed the belief of Dr. Leon Rosenberg (Yale) who distinguishes betweenvitamin deficiency diseases and vitamin dependency diseases. Some diseaseswould require 1000 times the calculated minimal daily requirement. Anotherinvestigator [Moore] used high intravenous doses of nicotinic acid (B3) inthe control of M.S.

Dr. Klenner’s protocol for M.G. and M.S. in the 1950’s:

1. Thiamin, (B1), orally: 300 to 500 mg 30 minutes before meals and atbedtime. Intramuscularly: 400 mg daily. Intravenously: 1000 mg (or 20 mgper kg body weight) two to three times a week. A 20 cc to 30 cc syringewith a one inch 22 gauge (or smaller) needle is used. The patient is to besupine and the pulse counted as the solution is injected. If the pulserises, the solution is being injected too rapidly. Thiamin can be toxicbut as soon as it is phosphorylated (in seconds) it becomes cocarboxylase,a necessary enzyme. Benadryl. intramuscularly stops any allergic reaction.Dr. Klenner reassures us that if injected slowly, no problem isencountered. The preservatives are more likely to cause reactions than thethiamin.
2. Niacin or nicotinic acid, (B3), orally: 100 mg to 3000 mg thirtyminutes before meals and at bedtime. The dose should be enough to producea strong body flush. As it dilates the blood vessels-“even those that havebeen compressed by scar tissue”-a greater amount of the nutrients reachthe muscle and nerve cells. Dr. Klenner felt it would be better to have aconstant flush.
3. Pyridoxine, (B6), orally: 100 to 200 mg before meals and at bedtime.Intramuscularly: 100 mg daily. Lack of B6 causes anemia and neurologicallesions. Intravenously: 300 mg. It is necessary for the metabolism offatty and amino acids.
4. Cobalamin, (B12), intramuscularly: 1000 mcg three times a week. B12 isa factor in the synthesis of myelin. In the treatment of neurologicaldiseases, B12 reduces the requirement of choline.
5. Ascorbic acid, orally: 10 to 20 grams are to be taken daily in divideddoses. Vitamin C will prevent a superimposed infection and aids inmetabolism.
6. Riboflavin, (B2), orally: 25 mg before meals and at bedtime.Intramuscularly: 40 to 80 mg daily. It is essential for metabolism ofcarbohydrates and in the regulatory function of the hormones involved incarbohydrate metabolism.
7. d-alpha tocopherol acetate, (Vitamin E), orally: 800 Units before mealsand at bedtime. A deficiency results in demyelinization and distortion ofthe spinal cord nerves.
8. Crude Liver, daily injections. It contains factors still unknown butessential in metabolism. (Not manufactured now.)
9. Adenosine-5-monophosphoric acid. By adding this, all the chemistrydealing with cell metabolism is enhanced. It is essential to musclefunction and, thus, energy.
10. Choline, orally: 700 to 1400 mg after each meal and at bedtime. It isin fat and nerve tissue. Acetylcholine plays an important role in humoraltransmission of nerve impulses to effector organs like muscles.
11. Lecithin, orally: 1200 mg of soybean lecithin after each meal.Lecithin contains choline. It plays an important part in the structure ofcell membranes. It is the lipid used in nerve tissue.
12. Magnesium, orally: 300 mg after each meal. Muscle activity requiresmagnesium. It also serves as an enzyme activator.
13. Calcium gluconate, orally: ten-grain tablets. Two tablets after eachmeal and bedtime. Intravenously: one gram twice weekly. Helps muscleactivity.
14. Calcium pantothenate, orally: 500 mg after each meal and at bedtime.This is a coenzyme A. It participates in the acetylation of amines andmetabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids.
15. Aminoacetic acid, (Glycine), orally: one heaping tablespoon of thepowder in a glass of milk four times a day. It is concerned with thesyntheses of glutathione which is involved with intracellular oxidationand reduction. It stimulates the combustion of other tissue constituents.It has an adaptability in the detoxification process.
16. The hemoglobin should be kept to at least thirteen grams.
17. The diet is to be high protein, including two to three eggs forbreakfast.
18. One Theragran-M capsule daily for trace minerals.
19. Dantrium to relieve tremors. Sysmmetrol to relieve stiffness.
20. Zinc gluconate, orally: 20 mg three times a day helps MyastheniaGravis.

This treatment works dramatically in M.G. An abbreviated schedule can beeffective. One gram thiamin four times a day, niacin, enough to produce aflush four times a day, 200 mg calcium pantothenate four times a day, 100mg pyridoxine four times a day, 10 grams of C in divided doses, glycineone tablet four times a day. This treatment is effective, but the fulltherapy will afford more dramatic response.

Dr. Klenner felt that most cases (80%) of Multiple Sclerosis had theirorigin in an illness-probably a coxsackie virus-compatible with a summer“flu”. He mentioned other theories of the etiology of M.S., but wasconvinced that the scar tissue that forms around the nerves and producesthe symptoms “is the end result of microscopic hemorrhages following virusinvasion.”

He believed that in M.G. the thymus gland was hyperplastic in many cases,and that muscle antibodies might account for others, but the importance ofthe excessive pyruvates at the neuromuscular junction has to be recognizedas the basic cause of the hypotonia.

Here followed a number of a case histories of neurological diseases. Onecase of M.S. was of a male confined to a wheel chair in the hospital fortwo years. After a month of the treatment listed above his physicianrealized the improvement and sent him home. In three years he was freefrom the disease and remained so as he continued in a modified treatment.

One M.G. case was of a male receiving prostigmine to which he was becomingunresponsive; thiamin was given intramuscularly along with other Bvitamins three times a day. He was off the prostigmine in a year. He liveda normal life for eighteen years. He died of an unrelated cerebralaccident.

A woman with polyneuritis began her illness with pain, burning and jerkingof her legs accompanied by a high fever for ten days. Paralysis on leftside plus weakness of the hands. She received oral and intramuscularinjections. In several months intravenous vitamins were begun. In sixteenmonths she began to move her right leg. In five years from the beginningof the illness she began to get around with knee braces and a walker. Inone more year she was able to move about without a back brace. Dr. Klennerfelt if she had had 200 grams of ascorbic acid early, she would not havehad the paralysis. She was also given 300 mg ribonucleic acid four times aweek.

Another woman developed weakness in her extremities and was diagnosed asM.S. superimposed by a viral encephalitis. She was sent home with awheelchair and was expected to die. She fully recovered on Dr. Klenner’sprotocol and continued to take her supplements.

A male, aged 28, developed numbness and loss of muscle control from thewaist down about two years before he came to Dr. Klenner’s treatment. Healso had loss of bladder control. Dr. Klenner felt he had M.S. and put himon the above treatment. He was so much better in five weeks that hestopped treatment but the symptoms returned in three weeks, so he wentback on the full treatment. Within a year he was back to full employmentand able to follow his hobby as a crack pistol shooter.

A white 57 year old female began to be fatigued seven years before comingto Dr. Klenner. She had normal function after a night’s sleep but haddrooping eyelids and could not chew food after a few bites. Some doctorshad called it psychosomatic. But it was quite obvious to Dr. Klenner thatshe had M.G. After 1000 mg of thiamin and 300 mg of pyridoxineadministered intravenously in ten minute intervals, she was able to chewand make facial movements for the first time in three years. She has nosymptoms as long as she continues the Klenner program.

He was quite definite: “Any victim of Multiple Sclerosis who willdramatically flush with the use of nicotinic acid and has not yetprogressed to the stage of myelin degeneration, as witnessed by sustainedankle clonus, can be cured with the adequate employment of thiamin, Bcomplex proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and injectable crude liver.” “Wehad patients in wheel chairs who returned to normal activities after fiveto eight years of treatment.” He also noted that if M.S. patients had acourse of ACTH or cortisone, it extended the recovery period.

He noted the peripheral neuritis that is due to thiamin deficiency iscommon in chronic alcoholism.

“The treatment of M.G. is that of any pathology dealing with theinterruption of the normal physiology of nerve cells.” He had found thatafter successfully treating poliomyelitis victims with Vitamin C, he hadto follow up with B vitamins for the nerve repair. He found the sameresults when treating damage to the spinal cord, whether trauma or viralinfection. B1 restores the ability of the nervous system to handle pyruvicacid and dextrose properly. Cocarboxylase may be the “food required fornerve life.”

Since M.G. does not suffer the loss of myelin sheaths in vital areas, itdoes not have to be treated as rigorously as M.S. But the chemistry ismore complex because muscles are involved. 900 different enzymes have beenidentified, therefore vitamin therapy must be intense. Of course, goodliver function is necessary for good results. Dr. Klenner stumbled on aliver test: a test tube is filled with a morning urine specimen. In 24hours there is usually a gelatinous mass accumulation at the bottom; themore the amount, the more the stress to the liver. Choline will preventthis from appearing. These are phosphates.

In an article, “Fatigue-Normal and Pathological”, [Southern Medicine andSurgery, Volume III, #9, Sept. 1949], he had already had success with thevitamin treatment of MS. and M.G. Dr. Klenner felt that fatigue is awarning signpost along the road of infectious disease. Heavy muscularexercise throws a great burden on the defensive mechanisms. The tissue ofthe adrenal cortex of rats is increased in weight after repeated periodsof exercise.

He pointed out the importance of oxygen in the etiology of fatigue. If theair that is inhaled has but 0.1 percent of carbon monoxide, half thehemoglobin will be bound to the CO and unavailable for carrying oxygen tothe tissues.

Poorly oxygenated blood can come from drugs, analgesics, and even sodiumbicarbonate. A deficiency of B1 will reduce tissue (which breaks downacetylcholine needed at the nerve ending to activate the muscle). Shots ofit are to be given daily from one to three weeks and then a 15 mg tabletorally every six hours.

B1, 100 mg intramuscularly three times a day are given along with oralglycine. The other members of the B complex were added.

“Avitaminotic nerve fibers have a hunger for this vitamin (B1), and it iseasy to know when the optimum return of function is obtained. When thenerve structure has been repaired, the patient will become irritable, theappetite will be lost and he or she will experience a sensation ofheaviness and stiffness of the muscles of the extremities. SufficientVitamin C is then given by mouth to maintain optimum therapeutics.”

As to M.S. the diagnosis is determined by the “evidence of lesionsaffecting chiefly the white matter, scattered in time and space: palsy ofone of the oculomotor nerves, nystagmus, slight ataxia of arms, absence ofabdominal reflexes and other scattered neurological anomalies (such aspoor bladder control and patchy sensory changes).

Subtle forms of encephalitis might cause changes in the nervous systempreventing a normal supply of Vitamin B1 from reaching distal parts of thenervous system. He noted the increased incidence of M.S. after theencephalitis epidemic of 1920-26 and in 1934. Also unrecognized cases ofpoliomyelitis may be an important factor in the cause of avitaminoticsymptoms in the central nervous system. This could happen in these diseaseconditions even with sufficient B1 in the diet; the vitamin is notdiffused properly. Initially it is the virus and when that dies down, itis scar tissue blocking the circulation. The capillaries must be openedand extra B1 must be supplied with the protocol cited above.

In a letter to the editor of the Tri-State Medical Journal, Oct. 1954, heboldly stated that he was curing Myasthenia Gravis. He seemed moredefinite about the biochemistry: pyruvic acid, if allowed to accumulate,will produce a cloudy swelling of the distal portion of nerves, and thatthe primary biochemical fault in B1 deficiency is the failure of theorganism to metabolize pyruvic acid. Also he realized that creatine(needed for normal muscle function) is formed by the body when choline andurea combine. Choline is in short supply in M.G. unless supplementedorally. He felt glycine should be supplemented in the diet because ityields urea. Protein is needed in the diet to sustain muscle wear andtear. Tyrosine is needed to help turn ingested protein into usable aminoacids and Vitamin C is essential in this reaction.

This leads us to paper he put together in 1980. It was not published:“Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis and Treatment Suggestions.”

He again stated the origin was due to a childhood virus of the coxsackiegroup mimicking red measles. The initial illness was a severe lunginfection, or an encephalitis which subsided only to recur as M.S. twentyto thirty year later. 70% of cases have the onset of their M.S. symptomsfrom the age of 20-40 years.

40% will have optic neuritis as the initial symptom, then optic atrophymay follow. Most will notice double vision early. Weakness, loss ofreflexes, numbness in fingers, dizziness, loss of position sense, feelingheat over spine, rheumatoid arthritis may occur concurrently (shortage ofB vitamins), intention tremor, poor bladder control, and spasticparaplegia.

His treatment suggestion for M.S. at this time (1980) consisted of:

1. Thiamin HCl (Vitamin B1) one gram (1000 mg) taken thirty minutes beforemeals and at bedtime.
2. Nicotinic Acid (Niacin; Vitamin B3) 50 mg to 300 mg, depending onflushing of skin, thirty minutes before meals and bed time.
3. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 250 mg after meals and bed time.
4. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) 100 mg after meals and bed time.
5. Calcium pantothenate (pantothenate acid/Vitamin B5) one gram aftermeals and bed time.
6. Lecithin. 1200 mg (19 grains) one capsule after meals and at bed timewith two percent milk.
7. Vitamin A (palmitate) one 50,000 unit capsule after breakfast andsupper.
8. Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopheryl acetate) 400 I. units. Four capsules atbedtime.
9. Niacinamide (Vitamin B3 amide) 500 mg. tablets. One after meals.
10. Magnesium oxide 300 mg tablet. One tablet after meals and before bedtime.
11. Trinsicon or Feosol. One capsule twice daily or sufficient to maintaina hemoglobin of at least thirteen grams.
12. Folic acid. Two milligrams after each meal. Only recommended when thehemoglobin will not respond to iron treatment.
13. Sunflower seed oil capsules. One capsule after meals and bed time.
14. Lipotriad. Three capsules yields 700 mg of choline. Two capsules aftereach meal. It is used as a methylating agent.
15. Calcium gluconate, 10 grain tablets. Twelve tablets daily. May beomitted if patient can drink a quart of milk a day.
16. Linseed oil capsules. One capsule after meals and at bedtime. Containslinolenic, oleic and linoleic acids.
17. Muscle relaxants. Prescribed according to patient needs.
18. Calcium Orotate (Vitamin B13) 500 mg tablet. One after meals and atbed time.
19. Calcium pangamate, 50 mg tablet. One tablet twice daily.
20. Protein supplement containing eighteen amino acids. One ounce in aglass of milk four times a day. Some of the above can be taken with thisdrink.

[This list was originally numbered 1) to 22), with 11) and 12) missing-ed.]

Intramuscular injection, given five to seven days each week.:
1. 2 cc crude liver daily. (Hard to get now. I can’t find it.)
2. 2cc Thiamin HCl, (B1), 400 mg daily.
3. 1.5-2cc Pyridoxine, (B6), 150 mg daily. Add to B12.
4. 1.5-2cc Cyariocobalamin, (B12), 1500 mcg daily. Add to B6.
5. 1.5-2cc Riboflavin, (B2), 75 mg daily. Add to B3 amide.
6. 1.5-2cc Niacinamide, (B3), 150 mg daily. Add to B2.

Some of the above vitamins are given one to three times each week:

Thiamin HCl, 1000 mg; Pyridoxine, 300 mg; Niacinamide, 500 mg; dilutethese to 20 cc with saline solution or best, sodium ascorbate (250 mg/cc).Give slowly with a 23 gauge needle, one inch long. Pulse is taken duringthe injection; if the pulse rises, the injection speed is slowed.

He found that RNA and DNA tablets, 100 mg of each, were helpful to somepatients; one to three of each daily along with the other vitamins.Inositol, 500 mg, one to three times a day may help.

Because of the large number of pills and capsules to be taken daily, Dr.Klenner suggested they be put into a blender along with a protein powder,milk, vanilla, and carob to make a tasty drink. They all might go downmore easily.

He cited some cases:

1. Female developed weakness in extremities in 1961 (refer to page 48).She was sent home to deteriorate. Dr. Klenner began his program, and sheis now cured and has been leading an active life for over 21 years. “Thecentral nervous system can be regenerated, but it does require time. Tenyears was given to the restitution of her entire nervous pathways.” She is“full of vim, vigor, and vitality.”
2. Another woman had complete paralysis of both legs and left arm. Sherequired a steel brace from hips to neck. After two years of this she wastaken to Dr. Klenner and started on the above therapy. In sixteen monthsshe could move her right leg and left arm. In three years she began tomove her left foot and button her blouse. In nine years she could standunaided. A modem day miracle, “Enzyme, co-enzyme, and metabolite theory isthe correct approach to the rehabilitation of the central system.”
3. In 1918 a male was diagnosed as M.S. because of blurred vision,numbness, and low back pain. In four months Dr. Klenner began his programand in six months the man was back driving the fire truck. He continued toimprove and cut firewood during off hours. Early M.S. cases will respondquickly.
4. Another female with dizziness, poor vision, lateral, and rotatorynystagmus (dancing eyeballs). The nausea was so profound; she could notswallow the oral vitamins. But after one year of the vitamin injectionsshe could do the oral route. From not being able to read a billboard, shecan now read large type books. The nystagmus is gone, but she needs a caneto ambulate.


Dr. Klenner reports on a few minor complications. Some diarrhea might havebeen due to sodium bisulfite. Induration after intramuscular injectionswas found to be due to the Vitamin C not being injected deeply enough intothe muscle. (One had to be drained-a sterile abscess.) If theconcentration was one gram to 5 cc it caused a vein spasm up the arm fromthe injection site in three cases. A thrombosis of the vein occurred inbut one case. A minor face rash developed in a few that cleared after theC was stopped.

Calcium seemed to enhance the effects of the C when both were givesimultaneously. But a gram of just the calcium given intravenously canslow the heart rate to a dangerous degree.

# Safety

He has some reassuring words for those who feel kidney stones are anautomatic result of large doses of Vitamin C. He says in all cases astasis of urine flow “and a concentrated urine appear to be the chiefphysiological factors.” Oxalic acid precipitates out of solution only froma neutral or alkaline solution-pH 7 to pH 10. Urine pH in those consumingten grams of Vitamin C daily is about 6. Even in diabetics who take thislarge amount of C (10 grams), the urinary oxalate excretion remainsrelatively unchanged. “Vitamin C is an excellent diuretic. No urinarystasis; no urine concentration. The ascorbic acid/kidney stone story is amyth.” One more bon mot: “Methylene will dissolve calcium oxalate stones,if the patient is given 65 mg orally two to three times a day,” he learnedfrom Medical World News (Smith, M.J.V., M.D.: Dec. 4, 1970).

(90% of all stones are calcium stones. Calcium is soluble in acid media.Vitamin C acidifies the urine. Acid urine discourages the growth ofbacteria. Although uric acid stones are theoretically possible with highdoses of C and a low urinary pH, none have been reported.)

A report in N.E.J.M. on 11 Feb, 1971 [Merton Lamden] suggested that largedoses of C might cause diabetes in humans. The experiment was done inrats, but the dose translation in humans would have amounted to 5000grams! [Paterson] Maybe there is a toxic dose. (Dr. Klenner at the time ofthat writing had been on 10 to 20 grams of C daily for eighteen years. Nodiabetes, and no kidney stones). This study has no relationship to the useof therapeutic doses of C.

Lamden found that an ingestion of 9 grams of C/day resulted in oxalatespills of 68 mg. in the urine per 24 hours. Controls without C spilled 64mg./24 hours. Not a big difference.

He reiterates the safety of large doses of C. He states that plasma dosesof greater than twenty times normal produce no ill effects. Diarrhea isthe most common side effect of large doses. Some notice thickening ofsubcutaneous tissue is the C is not injected deeply enough into, themuscle. (That induration will eventually resolve.) Some will complain ofvenous irritation and spasm if the intravenous Vitamin C is tooconcentrated or too rapidly injected. (C mixed with calcium will reducethis irritation.) A rare thrombosis may occur if the concentration of theC is greater than 500 mg per cc. Some will faint if the injection is giventoo rapidly. (It is best to have the patient lie flat.) Large doses bymouth may cause a genital or anal rash and itch.

He also showed how safe large doses of C were. He gave 200 patients 500 to1000 mg of C every four to six hours for five to ten days. No laboratoryabnormalities were found in blood or urine and no symptoms were notedexcept one percent who developed vomiting; he assumed from ahypersensitive stomach. And these patients had no virus infection to“assist in destroying the vitamin.”

One volunteer received 100,000 mg in a twelve day period; no problems.

# Reluctance by Orthodox Medicine to Accept

Dr. Klenner knew all this way back thirty to forty years ago. Why has themedical community taken so long to use this cheap, safe, and valuable toolto control infections? Dr. Irwin Stone, Dr. Linus Pauling, and Dr. RobertCathcart have tried to popularize this method and were only met with poorpress and ridicule. Are the drug manufacturers organized into a conspiracytoo powerful to overcome? M.D. types will believe what is published intheir favorite medical journals, but Vitamin C therapy studies are notseen in medical journals because much of the income to the publisherscomes from drug manufacturers. Vitamin C use represents a threat to theirincome; it cannot be patented. Maybe if patients demanded the therapeuticuse of Vitamin C from their doctors, the doctors would become familiarwith its use and add it to their therapeutic tools. Their colleagues wouldhoot: “Ha ha, you are a quack. You were suckered into that.”

The doctor could respond: “I didn’t want to, but the patient made me doit.”

But the evidence for its use seems to be there, right in the medicalliterature, but how many read the Journal of Preventative Medicine?

Dr. Klenner writes clearly and cogently. He is cheerful, evenenthusiastic. And I find no bitterness due to the frustrations about thepoor acceptance of his research by the medical establishment. He had donehis own literature search and finds plenty of confirmation for histherapies in animal and human experiments.

“Many physicians refuse to employ Vitamin C in the amounts suggested,simply because it is counter to their fixed ideas of what is reasonable.”The new products advertised by an alert drug company are okay to them. Dr.Klenner tells of many letters from doctors who used this C treatment onpoliomyelitis-in patients, their own children and even themselves. Theywere cured.

Dr. Klenner commented that if these spectacular results had been producedat a teaching and research center and then published, the medicalcommunity might pay some attention and the use of C would become standardand routine. “There is no doubt that physicians are being brainwashed withthe current journal advertising.” He uses an appropriate quote from HerberSpencer, “… to keep a man in everlasting ignorance… condemnation withoutinvestigation.”

He blamed the National Research Council who planted the concept indoctors’ brains that any dose above 125 mg per day is spilled by way ofthe kidneys. It was like any drug, the council implied, and more was nomore effective than the dinky dose that protected the human from scurvy.Doctors do not seem to realize that the need for C is different “in eachone of us either because of the individual kidney threshold level orbecause of greater requirements necessitated by pathology.”

# A Few Quotes

He reminds us of Hippocrates. He felt that of several remedies physicianswould choose the least sensational. Vitamin C meets those requirements.

“Adults taking at least ten grams of ascorbic acid daily and childrenunder ten at least one gram for each year of life will find that the brainwill be clearer, the mind more active, the body less wearied, and thememory more retentive.”

Another summary by Dr. Klenner: “I have never seen a patient that VitaminC would not benefit.”

He discovered the tremendous therapeutic power of Vitamin C to aid theimmune system, to act as an antihistamine, and to neutralize toxins.Again, let us not forget what comes through after examining all thesepublished reports: “Vitamin C should be given to the patient while thedoctors ponder the diagnosis.”

# References

Page II:
· Pauling, L.: Vitamin C and the Common Cold; W. F. Freeman & Co. SanFrancisco, 1970.
· Brody, H.D.: J. Amer. Diet. Assoc., 29: 588, 1953.

Page 2, How it Works:
· Klenner, F.R.: Virus Pneumonia and its Treatment with Vitamin C.Southern Med. Surg., Feb. 1948
· Klenner, F.R.: Encephalitis as a Sequela of the Pneumonias. Tri-StateMed. J., Feb. 1960.
· Klenner, F.R.: An Insidious Virus. Tri-State Med J, June 1957.
· Burns, J.J., et al: J. Biol. Chem., 207:679, 1954.
· Salomon, L.L., Conney, A.H., et al: NY Acad Science, 92:115, 1961.
· Burns. J.J.: Am. J. Med. 26:740, 1959.
· Stone, I.: Brief proposal. Per. Biol Med., Autumn, 1966.

Page 1-2:
· Arber, E: The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1897.
· Correspondence with colleague from Puerto Rico.
· Kline, A.B. and Eheart, M.S. Variations in the Ascorbic AcidRequirements for Saturation of Nine Normal Young Women, J. Nutrition 28:413, 1944.
· Joliffe, N. Preventive and Therapeutic Use of Vitamins, JAMA, 129:613,1945.
· Crandon, J.H., Lund, C.C. and Dill, D.B.:. Experimental Human Scurvy. NEng J Med., 223: 353, 1940.

Page 2-3:
· Klenner, F.R.: Massive Doses of Vitamin C and the Virus Diseases. J. So.Med. & Surg., 113:#4, Apr. 1951.
· Larson, C.: Ordinace, pp. 359-360, Jan-Feb, 1967.

Page 3:
· Starr, T.J.: Hospital Practice, 52, Nov 1968.
· Kropowski, H.: Med. World News, p 24, June 19,, 1970.
· Lojkin cited in Klenner’s paper: Massive Doses of Vitamin C and theVirus Diseases.
· McCall, C.E., and Copper, R.,: Vitamin C Shows Promise as a BactericidalAgent. Bowman Gray School Med. Alumni News, 14:1, Feb, 1972
· Wintrobe, M.M.: Clinical Hematology, Lea and Febiger, 3rd Ed 1952.
· Nossal, G. Most Killed Vaccines in Use not Termed Fit for a Mouse.Medical Tribune, Apr. 5, 1972.
· Kiegler, Guggenheim and Warburg: Vitamin C vs. Toxins, 1938. (Noreference cited.)

Page 4:
· Harde and Benjamin (1934-1935) found the Vitamin C fraction of theadrenal glands greatly reduced in monkeys killed or paralyzed by the virusof poliomyelltis.
· Yavorsky, Almoden and King (1934) reported identical findings in humanshaving died of various infectious agents.

Page 4,5:
· Klenner, F.R.: An Insidious Virus. Tri-State Med. J., June 1957
· Klenner, F.R.: Virus Pneumonia and its Treatment with Vitamin C.Southern Med. Surg., Feb. 1948.
· Klenner, F.R.: Encephalitis as a Sequela of the Pneumonias. Tri-StateMed J., Feb, 1960
· Gothlin, G.F.: A Method of Establishing the Vitamin C Standard ofRequirement of Physically Healthy Individuals by Testing the Strength ofTheir Capillaries. (No reference cited.)
· Baker, A.B. and Noran, J.A.: Changes in the Central Nervous SystemAssociated with Encephalitis Complicating Pneumonia. Archives of InternalMed., Vol 76: 146-153, July-Dec. 1945.
· Krumholz, S. and Luhan, J.A.: Encephalitis Associated with HerpesZoster. Arch Neur Psych, 53: 59-67 Jan-Jun, 1945.
· Bakay, L,: The Blood-Brain Barrier, C. C. Thomas, Pub., Springfield, IL1956
· Chambers, R. and Zweifach, B.W.: Intercellular Cement and CapillaryPermeability, Physiol Rev., 27: 436-463, 1947.
· Youmans, J.B.: Nutritional Deficiencies, 1941.

Page 5:
· Hawley, E.E., Frazer, J.P., Button, L.L. and Stevens, D.J.: The Effectof the Administration of Sodium Bicarbonate and of Ammonium Chloride onthe Amount of Ascorbic Acid Found In the Urine. J. Nutrition, 12:215(August) 1936.
· Klenner, F.R.: Significance of High Daily Intake of Ascorbic Acid inPreventive Medicine. J. Intl Acad Prev Med., 1:45-69, Spring, 1974.
· Klenner, F.R.: Use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic. J. of Appl Nutrit., 6:1953 (Paper presented at AAN Convention, May, 1963, Pasadena, CA.)

Page 6, Dosage:
· Klenner, F.R.: Massive Doses of Vitamin C and the Virus Diseases. J. SoMed & Surg, 113: #4, Apr. 1951.
· Shaw, et al: Acute and Chronic Ascorbic Deficiencies in Rhesus Monkeys.J. Nutrition, 29: 365, 1945
· Rivers, T.M.: Immunological and Serological Phenomena in Poliomyelitis.Lecture III, Infantile Paralysis, 1941.

Page 7:
· Klenner, F.R.: Significance of High Daily Intake. op cit.

Page 8:
· Klenner, F.R.: Use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic, op cit.

Page 9 Tests:
· Klenner, F.R.: A New Office Procedure for the Determination of PlasmaLevels for Ascorbic Acid. Tri-State Med J., 5, 1956.

Lingual tests:
· Ringsdorf, W.M. & Cheraskin, E.: Sec. Oral Med., U of AL Med Center,Birmingham, AL

Page 9-16, Insidious Virus:
· Klenner, F.R.: An Insidious Virus, op cit.
· Klenner, F.R.: The Clinical Evaluation and Treatment of a DeadlySyndrome Caused by an Insidious Virus. Tri-State Med J., Oct. 1958.

Page 15, Virus Pneumonia:
· Klenner, F.R.: Virus Pneumonia and its Treatment with Vitamin C. So Med& Surg, Feb. 1948.
· Klenner, F.R.: Encephalitis as a Sequela of the Pneumonias. op cit ibid.

Page 15, (Herpes Encephalitis):
· Lerner, M, et al: Detecting Herpes Encephalitis Earlier. Med World News,May 20, 1972.

Page 15, (X-ray Therapy):
· Oppenheimer, A.: Roentgen Therapy of Virus Pneumonia. Amer J ofRoentgen., 49: #5.

Page 17-21, Poliomyelitis:
· Klenner, F.R.: The Treatment of Poliomyelitis and Other Virus DiseasesWith Vitamin C. So Med & Surg, Vol. 111: #7, July 1949.
· Klenner, F.R., The Vitamin and Massage Treatment for AcutePoliomyelitis. So Med & Surg, 114: #8, August 1952.
· Klenner, FR.: Poliomyelitis-Case Histories. Tri-State Med J., Sept 1956.
· Sabin, A.B.: Vitamin C in Relation to Experimental Poliomyelitis. J ExpMed., 69: 507, 1939.
· Heaslip, Australian J. Exp Biol. & Med., 1948.
· Jungeblut, C.W.: Vitamin C Therapy and Prophylaxis in ExperimentalPoliomyelitis. J Exper Med., 65; 127, 1937.
· Jungeblut, C.W.: Further Observations on Vitamin C Therapy inExperimental Poliomyelitis. J. Exper. Med., 66: 450, 1937.
· Bodian, D. and Horstmann, D.:. Review of Their Work. JAMA, 149: Aug30,1952.

Page 22-23, Hepatitis:
· Freebern, R.K. & Repsher, LR.: Med. World News, Jan 23, 1970.
· Klenner, F.R.: Unpublished paper.
· Klenner, F.R.: Significance of High Daily Intake. op cit., page 56.
· Klenner, F.R.: Massive Doses of Vitamin C, op cit.
· Klenner, F.R.: Observations on the Dose and Administration, op cit.

Page 23-24, Herpes:
· Klenner, F.R.: Significance, ibid, page 64.
· Stephens, J.C. and Cook, M.: Cases of the Hidden Herpes Virus, Med WorldNews, May 26, 1972.
· Goodpasture, E.W.: Case of the Hidden Herpes Virus. Med World News, Feb25, i972.
· Roizman, B. et al: Tracing Herpes Viruses. Med World News, Oct 1, 1971.
· Klenner, F.R.: Use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic. op cit.

Page 24-25, Chickenpox and Measles:
· Klenner, F.R.: Massive Doses, op cit.
· Klenner, F.R.: The use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic. op cit.

Page 26, Infectious Mononucleosis:
· Hellne, C. and Helene, W.: EB Virus in the Etiology of InfectiousMononucleosis, Hosp Pract., July, 1970.
· Niderman, College Findings tie Mono to ED virus. Med World News, Dec1968.
· Klenner, F.R.: Observations of the Dose and Administration. op cit.

Page 27,
· Klenner, ER.: Unpublished work on RMSF and tick bite fever.

Page 28 Trichinosis:
· Klenner, F.R.: The Treatment of Trichinosis with Massive Doses ofVitamin C and Para-aminobenzoic Acid. Tri-State Medical J., April i954.

Page 30, Urethritis:
· Rous, S.: Urethritis in Men. NY Soc Med., Dec 15, 1971.

Page 30, Antabuse:
· Klenner, F.R.: Unpublished paper.

Page 31, Arthritis:
· Klenner, F.R.: Significance. op cit.
· Abrams, E. and Sandson, J.: Ann Rheum Dis., 27: 1964.

Page 31, Cancer
· Klenner, F.R.: Unpublished paper.
· Schiegel, G.E. et al: The Role of Ascorbic Acid in the Prevention ofBladder Tumor Formation. Trans Amer Assn Genitour Surg., 61: 1969.

Page 33-34, Cholesterol and Arteriosclerosis:
· Ginter, E.L.: Cholesterol and Vitamin C. Amer J Clin Nutr., 24:1238-1245, 1971.
· Spittle, C., Atherosclerosis and Vitamin C. Lancet, II: 1280-1281, 1971.
· Ginter, E.: Effects of Dietary Cholesterol on Vitamin C Metabolism inlaboratory animals. Acta Med Acad Sci. Hungary. 27:23-29; 1970.
· Ginter, E., et al: The Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Cholesterolemia inHealthy Subjects with Seasonal Deficit of Vitamin C. Nutr Metabol, 12:76-86. 1970.
· Willis, G.C.: An Experimental Study of the Intimal Ground Substance inAtherosclerosis. Can Med Assoc J., 69: 17-22, 1953.
· Shafer, J.: Ascorbic Acid and Atherosclerosis. Amer J Clin Nutr., 23:27,1970.
· Stamler, J.: Comprehensive Treatment of Essential Hypertensive Diseases.Monograph on Hypertension, Merck, Sharp and Dohme.
· Hecker, R.R. et al: J Am Chem Soc., 75:2020, 1953.

Page 34, Corneal Ulcers:
· Boyd,T.A., & Campbell, F.W.: B Med J., 2:1145, Nov 1950.

Page 35, Glaucoma:
· Virno, M.: Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Monthly, 46:1502.

Page 35, 36 Pregnancies:
· Greenblatt, R.B.: Obst & Gyn, 2:530, 1953.
· King, C.C. et al, New York Times, Nov 2, 1952.

Page 36-39, Schizophrenia, Heat Stroke, Sunburn, Slipped Disc, Toxins andHeavy Metal Poisonings:
· Klenner, F.R.: Significance of High Daily Intake,. op cit.
· Klenner, F.R.: The use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic, op cit.
· Mokranjac, M. and Petrovic, C.: Report on Mercury Studies in Guinea Pigsin Relation to Amounts of Vitamin C Administered. Cr Acad Sci., Paris.
· Dannenburg, A.M. et al: Ascorbic acid in the treatment of chronic leadpoisoning. JAMA, 114:1439-1440, 1940.
· Pelletier, O.: Experiments with smokers and non-smokers. JAMA, April1969.
· Mayers, B.W.: Where there’s smoke there may be carbon monoxide. MedWorld News, Jan 21, 1972.
· Hoffer, J.: Use of Ascorbic Acid with Niacin in Schizophrenia. Can MedJ., Nov 6, 1971.
· Hawkins, D.: Back to Reality the Megavitamin Way. Med World News, Sept24, 1971.
· Greenwood, J.: Optimum Vitamin C Intake as a Factor in the Preservationof Disc Integrity. Med Ann DC, 33:6, June 1964.
· Massell, B.F. et al: Antirheumatic Activity of Ascorbic Acid in LargeDoses. New Eng J Med, 1950.
· Kyhos, E.D. et al: Large Doses of Ascorbic Acid in Treatment of VitaminC Deficiencies. Arch Int Med., 75:407, 1945.
· Dalldorf, G.: Vitamin C in Health and Disease. W.B. Saunders, 1945.
· Musser, J.H.: Nutrition in the Aged. W.B. Saunders Co., 1945.

Page 36, Burns:
· Knisely, M.H. et al: Arch Surg, 51:220, 1945
· Knisely, M.H.: Science, 106:431, 1947.
· Berkeley, W.T., Jr.: So Med J., 58:1182-1184.
· Lund & Levenson: Arch Surg., 55:557,1947.
· Bergman, H.C. et al: Am Hrt J., 29:506-512, 1945.
· Lam, C.R.: Col Rev Surg Gyn & Obst., 72:390-400, 1941.
· Klasson, D.H.: NY J Med., 51:2388-2392, Oct, 1951.

Page 37, Surgery, Shock;
· Chambers, R. & Pollock, J.: J Gen Physiol, 10:739, 1927
· Clark & Rassiter: Q J Exp Physiol., 32:279, 1944.
· Barlett, M.K. et al: NEJM, 226:474, 1942.
· Laninan, T.H. & Ingalls, TB.: Am Surg., 105:616, 1937.
· Schumacher: Ohio State Med J., 42:1248, 1946.

Page 41-42, Poisonous Insects and Reptiles:
· Klenner, F.R.: Hunting and Fishing Magazine, April, 1950.

Pages 43-54, Myasthenia Gravis and Multiple Sclerosis:
· Klenner, F.R.: Response of Peripheral and Central Nerve Pathology toMegadoses of the Vitamin B Complex and other Metabolites. J Appl Nutrit.,25:#304, 1973.
· Klenner, F.R.: Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis and Treatment Suggestions.Original paper, unpublished.
· Klenner, F.R.: Fatigue-Normal and Pathological with SpecialConsideration of Myasthenia Gravis and Multiple Sclerosis. So Med &Surg., 111:#9, Sept 1949.

Page 45:
· Stern, E. I.: The Intraspinal Injection of Vitamin B1 for the Relief ofIntractable Pain, and for Inflammatory and Degenerative Diseases of theCentral Nervous System. Am J Surg., 34:495, 1938.
· Rosenberg, L.E.: Vitamin Deficiency Diseases and the Vitamin DependentDiseases with Reference to B and D., National Health Federation BulletinVol XVIII. #10, Nov 1972.
· Moore, M.T.; Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with Nicotinic Acid andVitamin B1. Arch Int Med., 65:18, Jan 1940.

Other supportive articles from the medical literature:
· Kempe, C.H.: A Key to the Secret of M.S., Med World News, July 7, 1972.
· Schandl, D.K.: Dissertation on Environmental and Pyridoxine cause ofM.S., The Charlotte Observer, Charlotte, N.C., April 23, 1973.
· Brickner, R.M.: A Critique of Therapy in M.S., Bull Nue Inst NY., 4:665,April 19367.
· Zimmerman, H.H. and Burack, E.: Lesions of the Nervous System Resultingfrom a Deficiency of the Vitamin B complex. Arch Path., 13:207, Feb 1932.
· Spies, T.D. et al: The Use of Nicotinic Acid in the Treatment ofPellagra. JAMA, 110:622, Feb 1938.
· Spies, T.D. and Aring, C.D.: The Effect of Vitamin B1 on the PeripheralNeuritis of Pellagra, JAMA, 110:1081, April, 1938.

Page 55, Toxic Doses:
· Patterson, J.W.: J Biol Chem., 81-88, 1950.
· Lambden, M.P. et al: Proc Soc Exp Biol Med., 85:190-192, 1954.

Need for Vitamin C:
· Sabin: J Exp Med., 89:507-515, 1939.
· Wright: Ann Int Med., 12, 4:516-528, Oct 1938.
· Brody, H.D.: J Am Diet Assn., 29:588, 1953.
· Regnier, E.: Rev of Allergy, 22:948, Oct 1968.

Adapted from Vitamin C as a Fundamental Medicine: Abstracts of Dr.Frederick R. Klenner, M.D.’s Published and Unpublished Work,
ISBN 0-943685-13-3, first printing 1988.

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