Nutriment – Vitamin C 2-3

### VITAMIN C, Ascorbate : page 2/3

## Lyme Disease — Wiped Out By Vitamin C,

September 22, 2005

Re: The Stonewalling of Vitamin C
At 06:12 PM 21/09/2005, you wrote:

This was extremely interesting, and helpful. I’m giving it to my Doctor. He is very open to natural remedies. I wonder if you have any information on Vitamin C in regards to Lyme disease. I am incredulous that so little attention is being paid to Lyme, when it seems to be virtually epidemic. I believe it often masquerades as other diseases. I, and my whole family tested positive, and are all undergoing antibiotic therapy including heavy doses of probiotics. We are in the third month of treatment, so imagine my delight at being able to treat this with Vitamin C!Please forward any research that you can find on this.
Thank you, B. Dyjak



Vitamin C has already been extensively and unequivocally documented to readily cure a wide range of infectious diseases, including many viral syndromes considered incurable even today (Stone, 1972; Smith, 1988, Levy, 2002). In reviewing a great amount of this information, it becomes apparent that for most infectious diseases, especially viral ones, the only clinical failures of vitamin C appear to occur when a large enough amount of vitamin C cannot be effectively delivered to the invading microorganisms.”….

See Dr. Julian Whitaker and Dr. Tom Levy’s notes below also read: When Antibiotics Fail: Lyme Disease and Rife Machines, with Critical Evaluation of Leading Alternative Therapies

There is some useful information to convince your doctor in:

How to Get Intravenous Vitamin C Given to a Hospitalized Patient

At the bottom you will also find a, do it yourself, Salt and Vitamin C regimen developed by personal experiences of real lyme sufferers.
Chris Gupta


Below, information from Dr. Julian Whitaker, forwarded by Betty Martini:;read=71811

## =====

From: “Dr. Betty Martini,D.Hum.”Date: 22 May 2005, 02:16:09 AM

Subject: Lyme Disease — Wiped Out In A Hurry, Dr. Julian Whitaker

Because so many aspartame victims suffer from Lyme (and especially for Angel Hemming and Doris) this article may be helpful. For Dr. James Bowen‘s article on Lyme Disease Reactivated by Aspartame and Sexually Transmitted go to and scroll down to experts.

Dr. Betty Martini, Founder, Mission Possible International, 9270 River Club Parkway, Duluth, Georgia, 30097 770 242-2599 .


“At a recent meeting of the American College for Advancement in Medicine, Hugh Riordan, M.D., of the Center for the Improvement of Human Functioning International in Wichita, Kansas, gave an extremely provocative presentation on the power of I.V. vitamin C, rekindled my interest and commitment to this therapy. Even more convincing is the research presented in a book by Thomas E. Levy , M.D., J.D., Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases and Toxins: Curing the Incurable — a must-read for doctors and patients. This 400 page volume with over 1,200 cited scientific references is a litany of the unbelievable. It’s all true.

Dr. Levy reports that in the late l940s, Frederick Klenner, M.D., F.C.P., used I.V. Vitamin C to cure 60 consecutive cases of polio. . In one case, a young girl stricken with polio had already developed weakness and semi-paralysis in her lower extremities. but with high-dose of I.V. vitamin C this was reversed in one week, and the entire disease was ultimately eliminated.

Klenner presented this information to the American Medical Association and published his results in several papers, but his findings were completely ignored by the conventional medical community.

Dr. Levy’s book also outlines how I.V. vitamin C has been used to cure hundreds of cases of acute hepatitis, both B and C strains, which are thought by conventional physicians to be incurable. I recently spoke with Dr. Levy about some of his personal experiences using I.V. Vitamin C.

One case in particular stands out. A woman suffering with severe and debilitating Lyme disease had been seen by many doctors and had not responded to several courses of antibiotics. Her health was rapidly failing and her husband called Dr. Levy.

The woman was immediately infused with 100 grams of Vitamin C and within just two hours of treatment here husband reported that she looked 50 to 60 percent better. Over the next two days she received five more 50 gram infusions of Vitamin C, and by hour 72 she was completely well. That was nearly two years ago. She has since suffered no relapses, nor is there any indication of a chronic infection.


Vitamin C has been much maligned by conventional medicine. For years it was blamed for causing kidney stones and Vitamin B12 deficiencies — accusations that were proven false (although this misinformation remains in textbooks everywhere).

At the Whitaker Wellness Institute we’ve used I.V. Vitamin C (up to 75 grams per dose) as part of our standard protocol for over 20 years, with no sign of toxicity. And virtually every orthomolecular physician I know uses I.V. Vitamin C, but conventional physicians never do. If you want I.V. Vitamin C, you’re going to have to see a different kind of doctor.


To find a physician with experience in I.V. Vitamin C, visit the American College for Advancement in Medicine (ACAM) Web site at , or call 800 532-3688.

For appointments: Hugh Riordan, M.D., in Wichita, KS, 316-682-3100 or;
Thomas E. Levy, M.D., J.D. in Denver, CO, 866-750-2121 or;
Robert F. Cathcart, M.D., in Los Altos, CA, 650 949-2822.

Dr. Levy’s book, Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable, can be ordered online at or by calling 888-795-4274

## =====

Pulsed Intravenous Vitamin C (PIVC) Therapy

Vitamin C has already been extensively and unequivocally documented to readily cure a wide range of infectious diseases, including many viral syndromes considered incurable even today (Stone, 1972; Smith, 1988, Levy, 2002). In reviewing a great amount of this information, it becomes apparent that for most infectious diseases, especially viral ones, the only clinical failures of vitamin C appear to occur when a large enough amount of vitamin C cannot be effectively delivered to the invading microorganisms.

With this in mind, then, a more effective dosing and/or delivery system of vitamin C to the various tissues of the body should further improve the clinical efficacy of this agent.

In cancer, Riordan et al. (1995) demonstrated the likelihood that vitamin C was an effective anti-tumor therapy as long as high enough concentrations of it could be achieved inside the tumor(s). These researchers also concluded that oral vitamin C supplementation was unlikely to produce blood levels of vitamin C high enough to have a direct killing effect on a given tumor. Later, in studying a certain line of cancer cells and the ability of vitamin C to kill those cancer cells, Casciari et al. (2001) elegantly demonstrated this point. They showed that the rapid intravenous infusion of vitamin C as sodium ascorbate in combination with alpha lipoic acid was effective in reaching vitamin C levels that were toxic to the cancer cells.

They also showed that a fat soluble analogue of vitamin C, phenyl-ascorbate, was able to kill cancer cells effectively at a dose roughly three times lower than seen with unaltered vitamin C.

All of the conclusions reached by Casciari et al. noted above support the proposed concept that most clinical failures of vitamin C for infections or other medical conditions relate to inadequate delivery. They administered as much as 60,000 mg of vitamin C over an 80-minute period, a very sizable dose and a fairly rapid administration by most standards of current usage. Yet such a large and rapidly administered infusion of vitamin C will not always be clinically effective. This still does not mean that the vitamin C might not be the optimal treatment for a given condition.

At the Colorado Integrative Medical Center ( ) in Denver, CO, we are starting to use a unique form of vitamin C therapy known as pulsed intravenous vitamin C (PIVC) therapy. First and foremost, this therapy utilizes the principle that the more rapidly a given dose of any nutrient or medication is given, the higher the peak blood level of that substance will be.

This very rapid delivery of vitamin C was first reported to be both safe and highly effective by Klenner (1971). In acute barbiturate overdose Klenner gave as much as 42,000 mg of vitamin C “by vein as fast as a 20 gauge needle could carry the flow.” This dose awoke the patient and began the reversal of the barbiturate toxicity without causing any side effects of note. Klenner safely administered push I.V. vitamin C on multiple occasions, often on very critically ill patients, with great clinical success and no reported toxicity.

The concept of PIVC is to get acute blood levels of vitamin C as high as possible. By simple diffusion physiology, an acute doubling or tripling of the blood vitamin C levels will temporarily allow an acute doubling or tripling of the amount of vitamin C that normally diffuses into perfused tissues via the gradient that is present at the baseline concentration. The temporary blood levels achieved can be substantial. If Casciari et al. can get a certain high blood level from infusing 60,000 mg of vitamin C over 80 minutes, then an I.V. push of 20,000 mg of vitamin C over 2 minutes can be expected to temporarily increase the peak blood concentration by 10-fold or more over the rapid intravenous infusion. This amount has already been administered safely on multiple occasions.

A physiological effect of such a rapid administration of vitamin C appears to occasionally induce an acute hypoglycemia. Sylvest (1942) found that a majority of people given intravenous vitamin C showed a clear lowering of blood sugar. This effect is possibly due to a significant reflex release of insulin from the pancreas. Such a conclusion is directly supported by the work of Cheng et al. (1989), who found that vitamin C injected into rats “produced a dose-dependent and marked hypoglycaemic effect after intravenous injection.” They also found that the hypoglycemic effect was maximal at five minutes after injection, coinciding with an increase in the plasma insulin concentration.

Vitamin C is a very similar molecule to glucose, and a rapid spike of vitamin C released into the blood likely can induce the same reflex insulin spike that is seen in a glucose tolerance test, where a large dose of glucose is given to evaluate how quickly and effectively one can restore glucose levels to normal by inducing insulin release. Clinically, this hypoglycemic effect has been the most notable in patients who are ingesting little food and drink, and in those patients who are generally sickest, as in advanced neurological conditions. In such patients just an infusion of vitamin C can cause hypoglycemia as well, not requiring the rapid I.V. push. Such patients may need a bolus of 50% glucose to rapidly reverse the low blood sugar, as it has been noted to occur even when the carrier I.V. fluid is 5% dextrose (sugar) in water. However, the I.V. push does seem to more reliably cause the hypoglycemic symptoms, which fits with the animal literature cited above.

This vitamin C-induced hypoglycemia should prove to be a very desirable effect clinically, however. Severe hypoglycemia has already been safely and deliberately induced in a protocol that has been in existence for over 70 years now. Known as insulin potentiation therapy ( ), intravenous insulin (roughly 20 to 40 units) is given rapidly to induce hypoglycemia. As hypoglycemia becomes manifest, minidoses of cancer chemotherapeutic agents are administered. Such small doses, in the presence of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, appear to be facilitated in their transport across the cell membrane pathways such that the drugs reach killing concentrations inside cancer cells at much lower dosage levels. Traditional chemotherapy can often be given without causing the otherwise inevitable loss of hair seen with the much larger doses.

Vitamin C and glucose actually directly compete with each other for insulin-mediated transport into the various cells of the body (Washko et al., 1991; Cunningham, 1998). Increased intracellular access should prove to be a major leap forward in the effective treatment of most diseases already known to be responsive to vitamin C, and in likely quite a few more diseases that just need more effective dosing of vitamin C to show a positive response. Proprietary protocols being developed at the Colorado Integrative Medical Center are using such “Vitamin C-Enabled Intracellular Nutrition” (VEIN) methodologies.

A side effect associated with high doses of vitamin C, along with other nutrients given intravenously, and sometimes associated with concomitant hyperbaric oxygen therapy, has been noted at our facility. On three occasions patients have complained of bilateral mid-back discomfort. When this has been reported, further intravenous nutrients are discontinued, oral hydration and intravenous hydration are initiated, and oral or intravenous furosemide is given. This has resolved the discomfort in all circumstances. No associated abnormal laboratory findings have been seen to result. It is hypothesized that when the solute load gets high enough in the blood perfusing the kidney, a dehydrating effect is acutely inflicted on the kidney cells, causing the pain/discomfort reflex. Neglected, more serious complications could occur. However, the regimen just outlined takes care of such situations fairly promptly.

Furthermore, such a side effect can actually give the health care practitioner a practical point beyond which further intravenous nutrition should not be pushed acutely.

Anecdotally, I have had the occasion to clinically cure a case of acute Lyme disease with three days of intravenous vitamin C therapy. Whether this is readily repeatable, or whether a chronic case of Lyme disease would respond as well remains to be seen. At the Colorado Integrative Medical Center we are now initiating a combination of therapies including those mentioned in this newsletter to see precisely how much success we can have on a regular basis with this particular disease. We are presently accepting new patients at this time who have this condition and are looking for another treatment option.

Contact Information:
Colorado Integrative Medical Center,
1260 South Parker Road, Denver, CO 80231
Toll-free: 866-750-2121,FAX: 303-750-4992
Ask for Darren Green, office manager


– Casciari, J., N. Riordan, T. Schmidt, X. Meng, J. Jackson, and H. Riordan. (2001) Cytotoxicity of ascorbate, lipoic acid, and other antioxidants in hollow fibre in vitro tumours. British Journal of Cancer 84(11):1544-1550.
– Cheng, J., S. Hsieh-Chen, and C. Tsai. (1989) L-Ascorbic acid produces hypoglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in anaesthetized rats. The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 41(5):345-346.
– Cunningham, J. (1998) The glucose/insulin system and vitamin C: implications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17(2):105-108.
– Klenner, F. (1971) Observations on the dose and administration of ascorbic acid when employed beyond the range of a vitamin in human pathology. Journal of Applied Nutrition 23(3&4):61-88.
– Levy, T. (2002) Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable.
– Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation. ()
– Riordan, N., H. Riordan, X. Meng, Y. Li, and J. Jackson. (1995) Intravenous ascorbate as a tumor cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent. Medical Hypotheses 44(3):207-213.
– Smith, L. (1988) The Clinical Experiences of Frederick R. Klenner, M.D.: Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C. Portland, OR: Life Sciences Press.
– Stone, I. (1972) The Healing Factor: “Vitamin C” Against Disease . New York, NY: Grosset & Dunlap.
– Sylvest, O. (1942) The effect of ascorbic acid on the carbohydrate metabolism. Acta Medica Scandinavica 110:183-196.
– Washko, P., D. Rotrosen, and M. Levine. (1991) Ascorbic acid in human neutrophils. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54(6 Suppl):1221S-1227S.

Copyright 2003 by Thomas E. Levy, M.D., J.D.
All Rights Reserved; Reproduction Permitted only with Acknowledgement and of the Entire Document
Consider forwarding this newsletter to your personal email lists or to specific friends who may be interested in the information. Thanks.!

## —————————————————————

Vitamin C Regimen Developed By Personal Experiences Of Real Lyme Sufferers

After 13 years of suffering with Lyme disease, a possible cure has been stumbled upon. A cumulative effect of much research has produced the possibility that salt and vitamin C may be all that is needed to beat this elusive illness. Without going into a lot of detail, our theory is that Lyme is not just a bacterial disease, but also an infestation of microfilarial worms.

Bacteria, worms, internal mites and the possibility of other creatures have been quite horrifying. Ticks can transfer many types of pathogens into the body of their host. It is also possible that the tick could pick up a new pathogen and pass it on to their next host, explaining why Lyme patients have different types of organisms within their bodies. Shortly after starting the treatment, we were shocked by the presence of the worms.

Microfilarial worms live symbiotically with bacteria. They protect the bacteria from being exterminated by the antibiotics. Our theory is that the microfilarial worm, though possibly a nematode, is a parasitic nematomorph which we name Paragordius Lyme Incorporehumani. The Lyme bacteria is Borrelia burgdorferi, named after Willy Burgdorfer.

After experimenting with the treatment of salt and vitamin C, we settled on a dosage of 12-one gram tablets of salt and 12-1,000 mg tablets of vitamin C, spaced throughout the day. The brand of salt pill is CMC(Consolidated Midland Corporation), NDC#0223-1760-01, ordered through a pharmacy (no prescription required) and the vitamin C used is a GNC product, though any good quality vitamin C pill should work. We have no relationship with either company.

The Treatment can be grueling; taking it with food may aid in digestion. The results should be almost instantaneous. The Herxheimer reaction is an excretion of toxins from dying organisms; this will be experienced. Diarrhea will occur as your body sheds itself of the pathogens. The die-off will occur in cycles. Try to stick with it; it is well worth the inconvenience. Remember to drink plenty of water. Water is an important factor, not just in keeping yourself hydrated, but to make sure the treatment is circulating through your entire body. Salt is an electrolyte which your body needs to function properly. Please proceed through the next 16 pages on our journey to a cure. You can click on any photo and get a larger view and a little more info. The photographs are untouched and no dyes were added. Our specimens have been saved in case the integrity of the website is questioned. The last page will attempt to explain how this conclusion was reached.”

Continue reading at:

posted by Chris Gupta on Thursday September 22 2005

# Related Articles

Lyme Disease & Rife Machines

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Electro Medicine and Lyme Disease

While the self righteous medical Mafia and bigoted sceptics continue to debunk electromedicine and other alternatives – time and time we see lay people do what the multi billion dollar industry does not want to do. Yet they will clamor all this is anecdotal, not been peer reviewed, trialed etc. etc. Not realizing how ‘el stupid o’ they look in the face of the fact that some of these results…

Cancer: Intravenous Vitamin C Effective Treatment

Studies during the 1970s first suggested administration of high doses of ascorbate might provide a clinical benefit for treating cancer, but later studies using the same high doses found no benefit. However, researchers now say the original studies used intravenous and oral ascorbate, while subsequent studies used only oral administration. Recognizing those differences might account for the disparate clinical outcomes, Mark Levine and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health

– Readers’ Comments: I have Lyme disease. I once used 8 grams of Vit. C plus 8 grams of salt for 30 days. I had about 2 weeks of feeling the disease was fading but then the effect stopped and I stopped the regimen. Now I want to start I.V. Vit. C. I know for this to have any real effect it has to be given daily and long term otherwise it will be a total waste of time and will prove nothing. There is no chance of getting any doc. to do this daily and long-term! Where can I buy packs of I.V. vitamin C for my personal use? I am spending a fortune and getting nowhere. Vitamin C is a food, not a drug and I should be able to buy it for myself. Please advise me where it is available.

Bob, see:

– I have 7,5 gram botles of IV vitamin C. Ready for use, pH balanced, made by an ISO 9001 certified laboratory. If you are interested please contact

## Liposomal Encapsulation Technology employed to make Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C·

What is Liposomal Encapsulation Technology? How it can help you!

Liposomal Encapsulation Technology (LET) combines nano-technology and bio-technology in a very powerful way.

Medical specialists have used Liposomal Encapsulation Technology for many years to deliver tiny amounts of therapeutic substances to specific organs or tissues without being altered and without affecting any other parts of the body.

Many health-promoting substances can be encapsulated in sub-microscopic liposomes. The liposomes not only protect the supplement from degrading conditions in the environment, but will also deliver them safe and sound to “target” organs and structures of the body.

LivOn Labs has just perfected a Vitamin C supplement, called Lypo-Spheric™ Vitamin C using “Smart” Liposomal Nano-Spheres™ – a Liposomal Encapsulation Technology (LET) especially developed for food supplements.

Here’s how it works…

Just like a “smart” bomb that can guide and deliver ordnance from a plane, several miles away, to a particular building and through a chosen opening and right to the desired target, “Smart” Lyposomal Nano-Spheres™ protect and deliver a powerful load of Vitamin C straight to the parts of your body that needs it most.

As you’ll soon see, Liposomal Encapsulation Technology is the most elegant and efficient oral delivery system ever developed to date.

Liposomal Encapsulation Technology makes use of a natural, little-known phenomenon that makes life, as we know it, possible. This phenomenon is the natural tendency of phospholipids to form tiny vaccules or “bubbles” – called liposomes – when in an aqueous solution under certain conditions. The liposomes are automatically filled with whatever aqueous solution they were in before they formed. This same type of bubble, called a membrane forms a protective barrier around virtually every cell in your body. We have harnessed this phenomenon to create sub-microscopic liposomes that are filled to the brim with liquid Vitamin C.

LivOn Labs adds a mixture of “essential phospholipids” – predominately phosphatidylcholine – to pharmaceutical-quality ascorbic acid. Then this mixture is forced through a patented nozzle jet at over 1700 p.s.i. (pounds per square inch) of pressure against a special forming plate. The high impact forces the phospholipids to form liposomes that are so small that they can only be viewed through an electron microscope.

The liposomes used in Lypo-Spheric™ Vitamin C are about 100 to 150 nanometers in diameter (a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter) and are particularly suited to move quickly and efficiently to their target before releasing their contents.

“Smart” Liposomal Nano-Spheres™:

The perfect Vitamin C protection and delivery system

These Vitamin C filled liposomes, because of their size and composition, provide the perfect transport system. They…

· disperse in water or beverage
· quickly navigate through the digestive system
· require no digestive activity prior to assimilation
· rapidly absorb in the small intestine and are transported intact throughout the bloodstream to the cells that need it.
· release the powerful, non-degraded Vitamin C for use throughout the body as the liposomal material is metabolized by the cells requiring repair.
· all this without binders, fillers, gelatins, capsule materials, dyes, sweeteners, or flavorings common with tablet and capsule supplements

On the other hand, the traditional form of Vitamin C- tablet or capsule – is subject to a host of factors that can oxidize it, neutralize it, adulterate it, and even expel it before it ever gets to the cells that need it.

Order Lypo-Spheric™ Vitamin C Now!

©2005 LivOn Laboratories, Inc.- All Rights Reserved
LivOn Labs, Inc., 2654 W. Horizon Ridge Pkwy, Suite B-5, Dept 108, Henderson, NV 89052
ORDER DESK 1-800-334-9294
Thank you for Visiting LivOn Laboratories, makers of Lypo-Spheric™ Vitamin C

## Inhibition of human leukocyte 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity by ascorbic acid,

J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 261, Issue 16, 7127-7135, 06, 1986

Inhibition of human leukocyte 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity by ascorbic acid. An effect mediated by the free radical monodehydroascorbate
HJ Harwood Jr, YJ Greene and PW Stacpoole

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity in microsomes isolated from cultured lymphoid (IM-9) cells or freshly isolated human leukocytes was markedly decreased by either ascorbic acid or its oxidized derivative, dehydroascorbate. Inhibition of IM-9 leukocyte HMG-CoA reductase activity was log linear between 0.01 and 10 mM ascorbic acid (25 and 81% inhibition, respectively) and 0.1 and 10 mM dehydroascorbate (5 and 75% inhibition, respectively).

Inhibition was noncompetitive with respect to HMG-CoA (Km = 10.2 microM (RS); ascorbic acid, Ki = 6.4 mM; dehydroascorbate, Ki = 15 mM) and competitive with respect to NADPH (Km = 16.3 microM; acetic acid, Ki = 6.3 mM; dehydroascorbate, Ki = 3.1 mM). Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate are interconverted through the free radical intermediate monodehydroascorbate. Reducing agents are required to convert dehydroascorbate to monodehydroascorbate, but prevent formation of the free radical from ascorbate. In microsomes from IM-9 cells, the reducing agent, dithiothreitol, abolished HMG-CoA reductase inhibition by ascorbate but enhanced inhibition by dehydroascorbate. In addition, the concentration of monodehydroascorbate present in ascorbate solutions was directly proportional to the degree of HMG-CoA reductase inhibition by 1.0 mM ascorbate. Fifty per cent inhibition of enzyme activity occurred at a monodehydroascorbate concentration of 14 microM. These data indicate that monodehydroascorbate mediates inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by both ascorbate and dehydroascorbate.

This effect does not appear to be due to free radical-induced membrane lipid modification, however, since both ascorbate and dehydroascorbate inhibited the protease-solubilized, partially purified human liver enzyme. Since inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase occurs at physiological concentrations of ascorbic acid in the human leukocyte (0.2-1.72 mM), this vitamin may be important in the regulation of endogenous cholesterol synthesis in man.

## High dose vitamin C reduced colds in Japanese study, By Dominique Patton,

01/09/2005 – Taking a high-dose vitamin C supplement everyday reduced the number of colds experienced by people in a Japanese trial, although intake of the vitamin appeared to have no impact on the severity or duration.

The new results add to the ongoing debate about vitamin C’s efficacy on colds.

A recent review by researchers at the University of Helsinki in Finland found no evidence to support reduced risk of colds after analysing 23 studies done in the general population, using doses of up to 2g daily.

However they did find that people who were given vitamin C and then caught a cold experienced a small reduction in the duration of the cold compared with those taking a placebo.

The authors also found that the vitamin could help prevent colds in people exposed to extreme physical exertion or cold weather.

In the Japanese trial, reported in the 24 August issue of the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602261), researchers gave 244 people living in Akita prefecture, one of the regions in Japan with the highest mortality from gastric cancer, a daily supplement of either 50mg (low-dose) or 500 mg vitamin C for five years.

After adjusting for external factors, they found that risk of suffering from a common cold three or more times during the survey period was 0.34 for the high-dose group.

Total number of common colds (per 1,000 person-months) was 21.3 and 17.1 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively.

In contrast with the Helsinki researchers however, no apparent reduction was seen for the severity and duration of the common cold.

They warned however that “considering several limitations due to protocol amendment, the findings should be interpreted with caution”.

## Intravenous ascorbic acid as a treatment for severe jellyfish stings.

P R Health Sci J. 2004 Jun;23(2):125-6.

Kumar S, Miranda-Massari JR, Gonzalez MJ, Riordan HD. Wong & Ung Clinic, Lot 5, Jalan Bunga Anggerek, Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia.

We report a case of jellyfish envenomation in a 39 year old male. He was stung extensively on both lower limbs by an unidentified jellyfish. This occurred in shallow waters of a beach in the vicinity of Labuan Island, Malaysia. The patient received ambulatory treatment with parenteral and oral ascorbate with remarkable recovery.

PMID: 15377062 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

## Age-dependent telomere shortening is slowed down by enrichment of intracellular vitamin C via suppression of oxidative stress. ,

Life Sci. 1998;63(11):935-48.

Furumoto K, Inoue E, Nagao N, Hiyama E, Miwa N.Department of Cell Biochemistry, Hiroshima Prefectural University School of BioSciences, Shobara, Japan.

Telomeres in eukaryotic somatic cells are destined to the age-dependent shortening, which has not been demonstrated to correlate to direct lesion of telomeric DNA by reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI); still less explicable is the inhibitory effect of ROI-scavenging on telomere shortening.

Here, we succeeded in artificial slowdown of age-dependent telomere shortening to 52-62% of the untreated control, in human vascular endothelial cells, by addition of the oxidation-resistant type of ascorbic acid (Asc), Asc-2-O-phosphate (Asc2P), which concurrently achieved both extension of cellular life-span and prevention of cell size enlargement indicative of cellular senescence. The results are attributable to a 3.9-fold more marked enrichment of intracellular Asc (Asc(in)) by addition of Asc2P, subsequently dephosphorylated before or during transmembrane influx, than by addition of Asc itself, and also attributed to diminution of intracellular ROI to 53% of the control level by Asc2P; telomerase activity was at a trace level and underwent an age-dependent decline, which was significantly decelerated by Asc2P.

Thus, age-dependent telomere-shortening can be decelerated by suppression of intracellular oxidative stress and/or by telomerase retention, both of which are achieved by enriched Asc(in) but not by extracellular Asc overwhelmingly more abundant than Asc(in).

PMID: 9747894 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

## Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004 Oct 18;(4):CD000980. Update of: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000980.

Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Douglas RM, Hemila H, D’Souza R, Chalker EB, Treacy B.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, 34 Nungara Place, Aranda, ACT, Australia, 2614.

BACKGROUND: The role of oral vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the prevention and treatment of the common cold has been a subject of controversy for at least sixty years. Public interest in the topic continues to be high and vitamin C continues to be widely sold and used as a preventive and therapeutic agent for this common ailment.

OBJECTIVES: To discover whether oral vitamin C in doses of 200 mg or more daily, reduces the incidence, duration or severity of the common cold when used either as continuous prophylaxis or after the onset of cold symptoms.

SEARCH STRATEGY: This updated review added to earlier searches, a full search of the following electronic databases: the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2004); MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2004); and EMBASE (1990 to June 2004).

SELECTION CRITERIA: Papers were excluded if a dose less than 200 mg daily of vitamin C was used; if there was no placebo comparison; if methods of outcome assessment were inadequately described; and if the report did not record any of the three study outcomes (incidence, duration or severity) in sufficient detail to enter into the meta-analysis. Three criteria of study quality were assessed: Jadad scores, placebo distinguish-ability, and allocation concealment.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. ‘Incidence’ of colds during prophylaxis was assessed as the proportion of participants experiencing one or more colds during the study period. ‘Duration’ was the mean days of illness of cold episodes and ‘severity’ of these episodes was assessed by days confined indoors, off work or school. or by symptom severity scores.

MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-nine trial comparisons involving 11,077 study participants contributed to the meta-analysis on the relative risk (RR) of developing a cold while taking prophylaxis. The pooled RR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.00). A subgroup of six trials that involved a total of 642 marathon runners, skiers, and soldiers on sub-arctic exercises reported a pooled RR of 0.50 (95%CI 0.38 to 0.66).Thirty comparisons that involved 9,676 respiratory episodes contributed to the meta-analysis on common cold duration during prophylaxis .

A consistent benefit was observed, representing a reduction in cold duration of 8% (95% CI 3% to 13%) for adult participants and 13.5% (95% CI 5% to 21%) for child participants.Fifteen trial comparisons that involved 7,045 respiratory episodes contributed to the meta-analysis of severity of episodes experienced while on prophylaxis. The pooled results revealed a difference favouring those on vitamin C when days confined to home and off work or school were taken as a measure of severity (p = 0.02), and when restricting to studies which used symptom severity scores (p = 0.16), and for the both measures of severity combined (p = 0.004).

Seven trial comparisons that involved 3,294 respiratory episodes contributed to the meta-analysis of cold duration during therapy with vitamin C that was initiated after the onset of cold symptoms, and no significant difference from placebo was seen. Four trial comparisons that involved 2,753 respiratory episodes, contributed to the meta-analysis of cold severity during therapy and no significant difference from placebo was seen. In laboratory studies, differing methods of artificial transmission of virus to vitamin C or placebo treated volunteers in residential experiments gave different results. Volunteers infected by nasal installation showed small or no benefit from vitamin C, whereas a group who were infected more naturally, reported less severe symptom severity scores (p = 0.04).

REVIEWERS’ CONCLUSIONS: The failure of vitamin C supplementation to reduce the incidence of colds in the normal population indicates that routine mega-dose prophylaxis is not rationally justified for community use. But evidence shows that it could be justified in persons exposed to brief periods of severe physical exercise and/or cold environments. Also, the consistent and statistically significant small benefits on duration and severity for those using regular vitamin C prophylaxis indicates that vitamin C plays some role in respiratory defence mechanisms. The trials in which vitamin C was introduced at the onset of colds as therapy did not show any benefit in doses up to 4 grams daily, but one large trial reported equivocal benefit from an 8 gram therapeutic dose at onset of symptoms.

PMID: 15495002 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

## Randomized, prospective trial of antioxidant supplementation in critically ill surgical patients.,

Ann Surg. 2002 Dec;236(6):814-22.

Nathens AB, Neff MJ, Jurkovich GJ, Klotz P, Farver K, Ruzinski JT, Radella F, Garcia I, Maier RV.

Division of Trauma and General Surgery, Harborview Medical Center and the Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of early, routine antioxidant supplementation using alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in reducing the rate of pulmonary morbidity and organ dysfunction in critically ill surgical patients.

SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Oxidative stress has been associated with the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and organ failure through direct tissue injury and activation of genes integral to the inflammatory response. In addition, depletion of endogenous antioxidants has been associated with an increased risk of nosocomial infections. The authors postulated that antioxidant supplementation in critically ill surgical patients may reduce the incidence of ARDS, pneumonia, and organ dysfunction.

METHODS: This randomized, prospective study was conducted to compare outcomes in patients receiving antioxidant supplementation (alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate) versus those receiving standard care. The primary endpoint for analysis was pulmonary morbidity (a composite measure of ARDS and nosocomial pneumonia). Secondary endpoints included the development of multiple organ failure, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and mortality.

RESULTS: Five hundred ninety-five patients were enrolled and analyzed, 91% of whom were victims of trauma. The relative risk of pulmonary morbidity was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.60-1.1) in patients receiving antioxidant supplementation. Multiple organ failure was significantly less likely to occur in patients receiving antioxidants than in patients receiving standard care, with a relative risk of 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.96). Patients randomized to antioxidant supplementation also had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and length of ICU stay.

CONCLUSIONS: The early administration of antioxidant supplementation using alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid reduces the incidence of organ failure and shortens ICU length of stay in this cohort of critically ill surgical patients.

PMID: 12454520 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

## Prolonged deterioration of endothelial dysfunction in response to postprandial lipaemia is attenuated by vitamin C in Type 2 diabetes.

Diabet Med. 2006 Mar;23(3):258-64.

Anderson RA, Evans LM, Ellis GR, Khan N, Morris K, Jackson SK, Rees A, Lewis MJ, Frenneaux MP.

Wales Heart Research Institute, University of Wales, College of Medicine, Cadddif, Wales.

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) has been described in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We have described previously a diminution of flow-mediated arterial dilatation and, by implication, further ED in T2DM in response to postprandial lipaemia (PPL) at 4 h. This is possibly mediated by oxidative stress/alteration of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. T2DM subjects tend to exhibit both exaggerated and prolonged PPL. We therefore studied the relationship of PPL to the duration of ED in T2DM subjects and oxidative stress with or without the antioxidant, vitamin C.

METHODS: Twenty subjects with T2DM with moderate glycaemic control (mean HbA1c 8.4%) were studied. After an overnight fast, all subjects consumed a standard fat meal. Endothelial function (EF), lipid profiles, and venous free radicals were measured in the fasting, peak lipaemic phase (4 h) and postprandially to 8 h. The study was repeated in a double-blinded manner with placebo, vitamin C (1 g) therapy for 2 days prior to re-testing and with the fat meal. Oxidative stress was assessed by lipid-derived free radicals in plasma, ex vivo by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and by markers of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery.

RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in endothelial function in response to PPL from baseline (B) 1.3 +/- 1.3% to 4 h 0.22 +/- 1.1% (P
CONCLUSION: PPL is associated with prolonged endothelial dysfunction for at least 8 h after a fatty meal. Vitamin C treatment improves endothelial dysfunction at all time points and attenuates PPL-induced oxidative stress. This highlights the importance of low-fat meals in T2DM and suggests a role for vitamin C therapy to improve endothelial function during meal ingestion.

PMID: 16492208 [PubMed – in process]

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